The supply of photosynthates to the microbiota associated with the roots plays an important role in rhizosphere formation and functioning, but AM colonization can be responsible for biological imbalance in the rhizosphere (Amora-Lazcano and Azcón, 1997; Amora-Lazcano et al., 1998; Schreiner et al., 1997). This may be due to the presence of AM mycelium that release energy rich organic compounds and positively affect the presence of inoculated microorganisms (Andrade et al., 1998). Conversely, Christensen and Jacobsen (1993) reported that the amount of plant root-derived organic matter which is available for microbial growth decreased due to the presence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi. This conflicting approach is due to the result of colonization of AM that changes many aspects of plant physiology, according to the conditions (Smith et al., 1994), and also makes modifications in the surrounding root
Among these, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), which belongs to the group of polyoxoesters has received intensive attention because it possesses biodegradable thermoplastic properties [Albuquerque et al, 2007]. PHA is synthesized by bacteria under unbalanced growth conditions. Some bacteria have been reported capable to produce PHA as much as 90% (w/w) of dry cells during depletion of essential nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus or magnesium [Madison et al, 1998]. Not only PHA serves as storage compounds of carbon and energy sources, but also as a sink for reducing equivalents for some microorganisms [Schubert et al, 1998]. PHA acts as an ideal storage compound due to its insolubility inside bacterial cytoplasm, which exerts negligible increase in osmotic
They impart successful biocontrol activity by direct suppression of phytopathogens and by further protecting the host plant through stimulating systemic resistance (Kavitha et al., 2012). The numbers of Bacillus are varying from 106 in cooler regions to 107 or more per gram in warmer regions. B. subtilis, B. mycoides, B. pumihis, B. megaterium, B. thuringiensis and B. firmus are wide range of Bacillus present in rhizosphere soil which affects plant parasitic nematodes (Lin and Dong, 2008). While the genus Pseudomonas is a group of common, nonpathogenic saprophytes that colonize soil, water and plant surface environments. It is a common gram negative, rod-shaped bacterium.
It can be defined as a group of organic chemicals and have been used to hinder the process of oxidative degradation of food products, fats and oils and polymers. Antioxidant can be defined as forms of molecules that help to maintain the body’s chemical reactions. They assist in preventing excessive activity of free radical molecules. Free radicals are molecules that are very reactive; having too many free radicals can cause damage to cells and tissues. Rich sources of natural antioxidants are generally provided from plants, which include
INTRODUCTION Biosorption is an innovative technology aimed at the removal of dyes from the textiles by using bacteria, algae,fungi and yeast. Dyes are water soluble. Important sources of the environmental pollution are textile dyeing industries. Dyes entrapment is due to Physico-Chemical interactions with active groups present on the cell wall: carboxylic, phosphate, sulfate, amino, amide and hydroxyl groups are the most commonly found, according to the biosorbent nature (Veglio and Beolchini 1997). These functional groups involved in dye binding.
Boron Deficiency symptoms in Plants Madne Manjushri, A.A.Naik. Department of Botany Savitribai Phule Pune University Abstract: Boron is an essential element for the growth and development of vascular plants, and adequate B nutrition is crucial for crop production. Boron is a key element present in plants. Uptake of boron in plants through root from soil in form of borate. Boric acid is then absorbed by plant and transport through the channel BOR1 and NIP5:1.
The identification of pharmacologically compounds from natural sources triggers efforts geared towards the total synthesis of the identified compounds and/or the generation of analogs” so as to aid in fighting against an increase in bacteria resistant to antibiotics. One such natural product is vancomycin which was originally discovered in a strain of Amycolatopsis orientalis (Streptomyces orientalis) isolated from a soil sample in Borneo. Amycolatopsis orientalis which is also called Streptomyces orientalis was first discovered by Pittenger and Brigham in1956. Amycolatopsis orientalis is from genus Amycolatopsis which has high guanine and cytosine content bacteria within the Pseudonocardiaceae family. Amycolatopsis orientalis is grown at 26°C in aerobic conditions and is stored at -80 °C frozen or 2 °C to 8 °C in the freeze–dried condition.
1992) on the food vacuoles of the parasites. Parasites obtain amino acids for protein translation and formation of their cell membrane from digestion of hemoglobin in the host. The undigested free toxic heme groups form reactive oxygen species. The natural process to remove toxic heme group from the parasitic cell is by the bio crystallization of heme to haemozoin (Pandey AV et al. 2003).
Plant pathogens have being a great threat to plant growth and seed germination. Resistance of seed pathogens is very crucial for plant species to be able to survive from one generation to another. During imbibitions, there must be a complex mixture of chemical compounds within a plant which contains the secondary metabolites (flavonoids, peptides, terpenoids, amino acids, alkaloids, and some other biological materials). for pathogen control. Whether individually or collectively, these molecules though seed exudates can be a powerful source of biological control.
105 NAC gene members in Arabidopsis and 140 in rice have been identified. By the identification and functional analysis of the ANAC019, ANAC055 and ANAC072 genes, role played by NAC transcriptional factors in the upgrading of water resistance in plants was observed and reported in Arabidopsis. After this work, a huge study on many functions of NAC transcriptional factors related to stress in many plants has been reported. The NAC proteins are also involved in the defense against biotic stresses by up-regulating the members of this gene family when pathogen infection and pest attack is sensed.NAC transcriptional factors are also said to be involved in playing an important function in regulation of programmed leaf aging which is ultimately related to the programmed cell death also called as necrosis. Different NAC genes from many species are observed to have expression in leaf senescence stage of the plant