ABSTRACT To catalyze a reaction, an enzyme will grab on (bind) to one or more reactant molecules. In this experiment we examined how increasing the volume of the extract added to the reaction would affect the rate of the reaction. The enzyme used was horseradish peroxidase which helps catalyze hydrogen peroxide. Using different pH levels, the absorbance rate of the reaction was measured to see at which condition the enzyme worked best. The rates of absorption were calculated using a spectrophotometer in 20 second intervals up to 120 seconds.
The effect of pH on the speed of enzyme interaction with substrate chemicals Hypothesis: About pH: If the pH level is less than 5, then the speed of the enzyme reaction will be slower. About temperature: If the temperature stays the same, then the speed of the enzyme reaction will not be completely affected. Background information: The function of enzymes is to speed up the biochemical reaction by lowering the activation energy, they do this by colliding with the substrate. All enzymes are under the class of protein biomolecule. Amino acids are the basic units that are combined to make up an enzyme.
The Bile Esculin agar test has its medium as selective and differential. Black medium shows a positive result for esculin hydrolysis. In the agar, Gram-positive cannot grow in the presence of bile while certain Gram-negative bacteria can hydrolyze esculin with bile present. MR-VP broth contains glucose and peptone. The enteric bacteria will oxidize glucose for ATP, but there are different fermentative pathways that allow glucose to be fermented.
(see table #2) The mixture with the bean water caused the solution to not be as concentrated, limiting the amount of oligosaccharides that the alpha galactosidase can break down, therefore resulting in a small amount of glucose concentration. The highest stand standard deviation is at 4 mL of alpha galactosidase, which is 185.742. The lowest standard deviation is at 0 mL and 1 mL of alpha galactosidase, which is 0. Since error bars are not all overlapping, it shows that there was a significant difference (see figure #3). However, the R squared value is 0.929, meaning that it is close to fitting the line of best fit.
The error was how fast the person was spinning the water. It could have changed the temperature of the water easily, by how much calcium chloride was dissolved. Another error was how much calcium chloride was added, it told us to add one scoop, instead of a more accurate measurement, for example, one tablespoon. The scoop could have been not filled all the way, or filled too much. To improve this experiment, we could have had accurate measurements and spinning every 10 seconds.
The cylinder with the sebacoyl chloride was 27.14 grams and the cylinder with hexamethylenediamine was 36.14 grams. We then calculated the mass of the reactants, which is found when we found the difference of the weight of the cylinders before and after sebacoyl chloride and hexamethylenediamine were added. The total mass of the reactants was equal to 41.35 grams. After we calculated these results, we started to create the chemical reaction. We put the sebacoyl chloride and the hexamethylenediamine in separate beakers, but then slowly added the hexamethylenediamine to the beaker with the sebacoyl chloride in it.
In this experiment, 293 mg of aldehyde was weighted for method 1 instead of 250 mg and. Although .7906 mg of phosphonium salt was added, this probably was not enough to complete the reaction. The only significant change throughout method was 1 was that the yellowish mixture became slightly lighter. However, it was found that after vacuum filtration, there was some white and yellow
When testing the effects of hydrochloric acid on different solutions data was collected that showed that liver cells have a buffer and celery do not which supports the original hypothesis of liver cells containing a buffer. A buffer is a solution that resists change in pH when acid is added to it. A buffer will release more hydroxide ions when there is acid added. Each solution in the lab was tested first at its original pH and then after five drops each was tested until there were 30 drops added in. When tested in the lab two controls were used one positive for having a buffer (alka seltzer) and one negative (water).
We like to see levels under 150. Your levels came back at 145 which is considered normal, so that is a good thing. Next, let us look at your LDL test. LDL is what we consider “bad” cholesterol. If you have too much LDL in your blood it can lead to the deposits of plaque in your arteries.
Antioxidants help to neutralize the oxygen-based free radicals that are present in the body. iv. Free radicals are associated with human disease, including cancer, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer 's disease, Parkinson 's disease and many others. B. Dark chocolate can be mood booster i.