Rachael Goodson Professor Kathrine Chiles ENG & AFST 331 15 February 2018 William Apess In the nineteenth century, America was at one of its peaks of racial debate, with people starting to question whether it was right for the African Americans to stay enslaved, or if it was time to start the process of freeing the slaves and allowing them to live a better life. However, most people did not even question how the Native Americans were being treated or forced to change almost every aspect of their lives to “please,” as if they could ever be, the white people. William Apess’ The Experience of Five Christian Indians is an example of some of the harsh ways that Indians were treated before and even after they were “forcibly” converted to Christianity.
However, in the 18th and 19th centuries there was a great deal of arguing and talk about freeing slaves between the Northern and Southern states, which the North really did not have a problem with freeing the slaves since they were leaning more toward the liberating lifestyle for all American people. The South was in between abolishing slavery. There were stereotyping going around the states about slaves.
Throughout the history of America, blacks have continuously been perceived as inferior to whites. At first, due to the legality of slavery, blacks were not identified as people, but property. This was a regular practice until the passing of the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth amendments, which granted rights to black inhabitants of America. Hypothetically, these rights were to make newly freed slaves equal to their white cohabitants, but this wasn’t the case. Court cases, laws, and illicit practices, ensured that blacks would remain inferior to whites.
Different groups of people had a variety of experiences in the new South, and these experiences were often contradictory and defied generalizations. Hahn discusses an emigrationist movement among freed slaves, mostly to go to Liberia or Kansas, in order to escape paramilitarism, become missionaries, or own land (Hahn 321). Other African Americans, particularly in Virginia, participated in biracial politics, where they took advantage of divisions among white southerners to remove barriers like the poll tax. While they had less power and lower positions than their white counterparts, this Readjuster movement gave African Americans some political influence, as black votes were needed to win majorities (Hahn 384). Hahn illustrates how there were
Washington too believed in America, but in a slightly different way. The story of his life, growing up as a slave and becoming one of the most powerful African American public figures by the end of the 1800’s, shows the idea of the American Dream. He stressed hard work and perseverance to African Americans in order to rise up as he did. As expressed through his speech later entitled the “Atlanta Compromise”, Washington believed that black people should not speak out against racial oppression in turn for education in vocational trades. In his speech, Washington said that “No race can prosper till it learns that there is as much dignity in tilling a field as in writing a poem.”
could not own property; • Slaves could not leave the plantation without permission” (p. 194). Slave Codes were wrongly enforced on free slaves in the North who had paid for their freedom with extra labor. Southerners thought that free African Americans were a nuisance and threat to slavery (Banks, 2003). According to Harris (1992), during the 1700s, free African Americans and African American slaves began to believe that they would have a better chance at equality and emancipation if they were able to read.
Not Always Black or White: Racial Hazards in America In the pre-Revolution South, and indeed for a century after, there was perhaps no societal construct as indicative or obvious as race. Whiteness in America became the essence of goodness, proprietary, and intelligence, while other skin colors (especially black) represented all that was carnal, instinctual, and bestial. This polarization was staunchly reinforced- whites became paternal or religious figures to their African-American slaves and used numerous tactics to keep them docile, or at the very least, afraid. Being black was it’s own condemnation; If you weren’t white, you were easier to find, hunt down, and subjugate.
American slavery has indeed caused some hardships in the past. Some viewed slavery negatively while yet other used believed that if you just obeyed your masters everything will be just fine. In the article’s that I will feature in this paper, “An Address to the Negroes in the State of New York” by Jupiter Hammon and “Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World” by David Walker, show two very different men who hold two very different views towards slavery. One suggests slaves to respect and obey their masters, never to rebel, and learn how to read, while the other pushes the issue about equality between whites and black, and suggests that slaves become rebellious towards their masters, while also making references to Thomas Jefferson’s “Notes
People just believe that they are superior to another because of their complexion. Racism did not always exist, people believe that it was stemmed during the slavery period almost six hundred and twenty years ago. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, a world-wide symbolic figure who suffered many years trying to discontinue the violence in South Africa during the apartheid era. Many activists strived for equality and protection as promised in the constitution. It is believed that it will take possibly a millennium before racism can be oppressed.
These African slaves would be needed in different plantations in the USA. With about 7 million slaves from Africa during the 18th century alone, the continent was robbed of its strong, able and potential workforce. But that was not all. With slaves being regarded as properties, slave owners had the “right ” to treat their slaves accordingly.
“I have a dream.” Almost every man, woman, and child knows those iconic four words. Martin Luther King Jr’s “I have a Dream” speech spoke to millions and is remembered as a pivotal point for African American’s civil rights. Perhaps his second most persuasive work is his “Letter from a Birmingham Jail.” Yet, what makes these works so memorable?