Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) believed in a psychodynamic approach to psychology and focused on how the unconscious mind motivates the actions of a person. He believed that the psyche was divided into three parts (tripartite), the id, the ego and the superego, and all three develop at different stages in our lives. Whether we acknowledge the presence of this subconscious or not, it influences greatly the actions we engage in. The id (it), according to Freud, is the part of the brain that seeks pleasure, and is the most primitive part that makes up the personality. It holds all of our primal instincts and seeks immediate gratification.
Meanwhile, Freud concepts of the id, ego, and superego are ways of describing people personality and characteristics; the id is a desire drive that wants to be fulfilled. The examples that Freud gave to explained the purpose of the id is: "to seek pleasure... unencumbered by restrictions of ego and superego with no regards to what is possible, or what is proper" (Feist 30). The ego is described as people everyday personality. The superego is described as human’s cultural norms and their social impact. In addition Freud believed that our personality is largely developed through the stage of development.
And Psychoanalytic Theory is a framework for understanding the impact of the unconscious on thoughts, feelings, and behavior. Freud emphasizes the lasting impact of early childhood events and adult personality development. And Freud believed that the mind is made of two parts- the conscious mind and the unconscious mind- and that the unconscious mind often prompts people to make certain decisions even if they don’t recognize it on a conscious level. Complementing the topographical model, Freud proposed a structural model of the mind that the mind includes three parts: id, ego, and superego. The id is unconscious and active at birth, and encompasses all of the instinctual and bodily wishes.
Sigmund Freud, also known as the founder of psychoanalysis, has introduced his theory on the id, ego, and superego to the psychology world. He came up with three different component of personality: the id, ego, and superego. Each personality has a different function, and they develop into a person at different age. According to Freud, the id is the most primitive part of the human personality, and it is developed during infancy, which means the id is already present in the new-born infant ( Wierzbicki, 1999). Freud believed that even the infant have sex drives.
Thus, crisis unresolved during this stage will lead children to become compulsively moralistic or overly inhibited (Apruebo, 2008). This theory aided the research in such a way that it explains how a child, especially during their play age develop a psychopathology which causes in the delay of the development of a child. Psychoanalytic Approach Dr. Sigmund Freud asserts that the first few years of life are decisive for the formation of personality. He developed five stages namely: the oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latency stage and genital stage. In these stages especially during the phallic stage, Freud believed that identification will occur (Apruebo, 2008).
Id, ego, and super ego are the three sections of the psychic device characterized in Sigmund Freud's structural model of the mind; they are the three hypothetical builds regarding whose movement and association our mental life is portrayed. As indicated by this model of the mind, the id is the situated of ungraceful instinctual patterns; the super ego plays the discriminating and admonishing part; and the conscience is the composed, sensible part that intervenes between the cravings of the id and the super-ego. The super ego can prevent one from doing certain things that one's id may need to do. Therefore, Id, Ego and super ego has its own distinctive differences
However, instead of focusing on sexual development (like Freud), he was interested in how children socialize and how this affects their sense of self. Psychosocial Stages Erikson’s (1959) theory of psychosocial development has eight distinct stages, taking in five stages up to the age of 18 years and three further stages beyond, well into adulthood. Erikson suggests that there is still plenty of room for continued growth and development throughout one’s life. Erikson puts a great deal of emphasis on the adolescent period, feeling it was a crucial stage for developing a person’s identity. Like Freud, Erikson assumes that a crisis occurs at each stage of development.
Freud later also developed a more structural model of the mind consisting of three main parts; id, ego and superego. These were hypothetical conceptualizations of important mental functions not some physical areas within the brain. First part the ID worked at the unconscious level for two main instincts. Life instinct and the death instincts. While the life one was to helps the individual to survive and help in life-sustaining activities such as respiration, eating and sex the death one was a set of destructive forces present in all human beings.
Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality explains the development of personality based on the interaction between Structural Modal agencies, namely id, ego and superego. The hedonistic id is the innate and primitive component present since birth, consisting instinctual drives: Eros, which is the life instinct as well as Thanatos which is the death instinct. Id operates on the pleasure-principle, demanding immediate gratification to avoid pain elicited when demands are not satisfied, regardless of the consequences. However, instant gratification may be impossible at times, hence inducing psychological tension. To minimize the arising tension, id engages in the primary process of forming mental images of desired objects, including
He claimed that as a child we all try to gain superiority and based on our successes we set limits for ourselves. To overcome other weaknesses, we develop skills in other areas in a process Adler named Compensation. Another important development in the Psychodynamic Approach was by Erik Erikson with the Eight Psychosocial Stages of Development. Like Freud and Alder, Erikson focused on early childhood and teenage development. These developments helped bring the Psychodynamic Approach to where it is today.