During the first 42 days, infants in the breastfeeding group (n = 206) gained 2.74 g/d more weight compared with the formula-feeding group (n = 212). At age 4 months, the prevalence of high hemoglobin count (hemoglobin > 128 g/L) was significantly higher in the formula-feeding group compared with the breastfeeding group. At age 6 months, mean length and head circumference increases in the formula-feeding group were 8.19 and 6.26 mm larger than those in the breastfeeding group. The differences were trivial in adverse event and morbidity rates between breastfeeding and formula-feeding groups. The most important determinants of breastfeeding in the studied population are maternal concurrent conditions, maternal age and maternal education level.
Also, due to increase in fatty tissues, “children sex organs matures faster leading puberty to occur around the age of ten” (Parks, Young Kids, Old Bodies) . The data provided on the article shows that about thirty two percent of children in America are overweight and seventeen percent are obese (Parks, Young Kids, Old Bodies).
Iron deficiency anaemia occurs at all age of the life cycle, but is more prevalent in pregnant women and young children. Adolescent’s girls are specifically vulnerable to iron deficiency. The highest prevalence is between the ages of 12-15 years when demand are at a peak. In South-East Asia Region, except Thailand, more than 25% of adolescent girls are reported to be anaemic; in few countries the prevalence is as high as 50%.The World Health Report (2002) stated iron deficiency anaemia was one of the 10 most serious risks in countries with high infant mortality accompanied by high adult mortality and reported that measures to address iron deficiency anaemia are the most cost effective public health
In 1993, the Chinese government launched the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Elimination Program. China bears the heaviest burden of iodine deficiency in the world. In 1995, 20% of children aged 8 to 10 showed signs of goiter. Some 400 million people in China were estimated to be at risk of iodine deficiency disorders, constituting 40% of the global total. Today, the global importance of the health condition is a range including goiter (enlarged thyroid), stillbirths, stunted growth, thyroid deficiency, and mental defects.
In a study of 54 mother-child pairs, they looked at the relationship between the mother 's levels of Streptococcus mutans and the levels of their children 2.5 years after birth. They found that children from mothers with high levels of strep mutans were much more likely to also have high levels of strep mutans(OR=2.96.) In addition they found that the these children with high levels of strep mutans also had a higher prevalence of dental caries(OR=9.39)(Kishi et al 2009). Although the passing cariogenic organisms from mother to child is not the only mode of transmission, it is appears to be a large factor affecting early childhood
Added sugars can cause inflammation and damage to arterial walls which can result in heart disease. A large study in 2014 showed people who eat the most sugar have almost doubled the risk of heart disease verses people who eat less. Also, type 2 diabetes is on the rise it has tripled among children in the last 10 years (Sugar Surprise). Subject B, Point 3: In “Chocolate, Fast Foods, and Sweeteners: Consumption and Health “by Marlene R. Bishop, she claims based on observations that the artificial sweetener saccharin causes bladder cancer in lab rats (19). Bishop also claims that the most health issues reported have been headaches which have been linked to aspartame, another artificial sweetener (20).
(“7 million,” 2014, para. 7). Air pollution is mainly common in developing countries from the extensive amount of industrialization and urbanization that is taking place. Poorer countries and communities cannot afford the ability to protect themselves, which is why there is so much suffering in these communities. In China alone, life expectancies are about 5.5 years lower than the United States because of the cardiovascular and respiratory mortality (Chen, Eventstin, Greenstone, & Li, 2013, para.
The poorer segments of the population are the worst affected by the obesity epidemic in richer societies. A number of studies conducted recently lend additional credence to this conclusion. These studies, for instance, find that in countries such as the United States of America, United Kingdom Spain, Sweden, and Canada, there is a clear inverse relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity (Zhang and Wang, 2004; El Sayed et al, 2012; Ventosa and Urbanos-Garrido, 2016; Rodriguez-Caro et al, 2016; Hajizadeh et al, 2013). The magnitude and direction of the socioeconomic gradient, however, varies within population sub-groups. Zhang and Wang (2004) assess socioeconomic disparities in overweight and obesity in the United States of America, stratifying the study population by gender, age and ethnicity, and discover substantial heterogeneity in the socioeconomic disparities in overweight and obesity across the strata.
Of notion, nicotine concentrates in fetus more than that of maternal levels . Additionally, the peak carboxyhemoglobin level and the amount of smoke inhaled are higher in waterpipe smoke as compared to cigarette smoke [16-18]. Nicotine smoking during pregnancy results in several harmful effects to the fetus such as low birth weight [19, 20], hypertension , asthma  and lung function abnormalities , retinal abnormalities , development of childhood leukemia  beside cognitive and behavioral disturbances . However, the effect of prenatal exposure to waterpipe smoking still needs further elucidation. We hypothesize here that in utero exposure to waterpipe smoking affects the development, suppresses
Any Body Mass Index greater than thirty is considered obese. For children, since children are always growing their age and gender are considered. The range of childhood obesity is from the age two through twenty. One of the main reason why childhood obesity is caused by environmental changes over the last thirty years. One change over the last years is highly calorific food.