Cognitive Therapy (CT) or Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) was pioneered by Dr. Aaron T. Beck in the 1960s, while he was a psychiatrist at the University of Pennsylvania. Having studied and practiced psychoanalysis, Dr. Beck designed and carried out several experiments to test psychoanalytic concepts of depression. Fully expecting the research would validate these fundamental concepts, he was surprised to find the opposite. As a result of his findings, Beck began to look for other ways of conceptualizing depression. He found that depressed patients experienced streams of negative thoughts that seemed to arise spontaneously.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory was developed by social psychologist Leon Festinger. The theory was first introduced in his 1957 book A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance and further elaborated in the article Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance (Festinger and Carlsmith, 1959). Cognitive Dissonance refers to the discomfort that is felt when a person has two beliefs that conflict with each other, or when they are engaging in a behavior that conflicts with their values. The theory proposes that this discomfort motivates people to relieve the tension in one of two ways: (1) by changing their beliefs to align with their behavior; or (2) by changing their behavior to align with their beliefs (Oduh, 2016). Crucial to the theory is the idea that cognitive dissonance always results in some kind of change.
Situational effects and personality come into conflict when discussing behavior. Personality is someone’s “usual pattern of behavior, feelings, and thoughts” (Twenge, 2017, p.20). It remains constant throughout different situations, but some situations can be stressful enough to make a person act out of character. The transition between a person’s normal personality and behavior to a more evil, sinister behavior fascinates a man named Philip Zimbardo, who conducted the infamous Zimbardo Prison Experiment, or Stanford Prison Experiment (SPE). Zimbardo is an American psychologist at Stanford University and the mastermind behind the 1971 Stanford Prison Experiment (The Story).
Interestingly, Beck’s cognitive therapy is associated with critical rationalism (Hofmann, Asmundson, & Beck, 2013). Critical rationalism is an epistemological philosophy (Popper, 1959, as cited in Hofmann, Asmundson, & Beck, 2013), that assumes that knowledge is only gained from attempting to falsify hypotheses from scientific theories. This principle is applied to Beck’s cognitive therapy. Patients gain knowledge by falsifying their hypotheses based on their beliefs. By falsifying their hypotheses, patients are prompted to update their belief system, which can relief their emotional distress (Hofmann, Asmundson, & Beck, 2013).
INTRODUCTION OF THE THEORY Cognitive dissonance theory is a theory that developed by Leon Festinger in the year of 1957. Leon Festinger was an American social psychologist. He is well known for cognitive dissonance and social comparison theory. He was born in Brooklyn New York City on May 8, 1919. Leon Festinger finished his high school life in Boy’s High School in Brooklyn and finished his degree in psychology in City College of New York in 1939.
Stages of madness: comparing Augustine's and Jung's views This essay examines Augustine’s Confession and Jung’s The Structure of the Psyche of the stages of madness. Jung and Augustine wrote about the stages of human life. Jung consider the stages of human development from the very childhood to old age. He drew attention to the different behavior of a person in a certain stage of his life, changing his personality and gaining consciousness. He also analyzed the problems that are typical for a person at a certain time of his life.
Erikson’s theory of identity development 3.1. General Background Erik Erikson’s psychosocial development theory is a psychoanalytic theory in which he extended Freud’s five psychosexual stages of development and suggested series of eight psychological stages of development, focusing more on the social context of development, through which a healthy developing human should pass from infancy to the old age (Fleming, 2004). The ego identity is the conscious sense of self that the individual may develop through his social interactions. The achievement and development of the ego identity is one of the aims of Erikson’s theory (Cherry, 2015). In each stage, the individual faces what Erikson called crisis which the individual must overlap to proceed
It is headed by Dr. Peter Neubauer, a psychoanalyst. The experiment wanted to determine if the triplets became who they now are because of the environment they grew up, the New York Daily News reported. 27 minutes apart The triplets were born 27 minutes apart from each other, Robert first, followed by David, and Eddy. They found out about
Thus, the social worker could utilize cognitive behavioral therapy for people who are struggling/suffering from anxiety, depression, panic, agoraphobia social phobia, bulimia, obsessive compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and Schizophrenia etc., by assisting a client to change how she/he think and what they do. Since the focus is on the current causes of distress or symptoms instead to improve their state of mind now. According to James Pretzer (2014), There has been limited research on the ways in which cultural differences may impact the cognitive behavioral therapy practice. Since individuals from different cultures tend to think about different things and tend to think about them differently, using different reasoning processes. This obviously could have important implications for CBT with its focus on addressing the client’s thoughts and thought processes.
COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPY: ACCEPTANCE AND COMMITMENT THERAPY: Albert Ellis (1913-2007) was a psychoanalyst who has growing dissatisfaction towards it. But he was interested in learning behavior related therapy. Albert Ellis, Aaron Beck, Donald Meichenbaum were indulged in writing treatment for chronically ill and severely stressed patient using cognitive therapy. But it ended up with behavior therapy techniques combined with cognitive therapy which were prominent in that era. That’s how Cognitive Behavior Therapy came to practice.