Analysis Of Aristotle's Persuasive Strategies

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2.5.1. Aristotle’s Persuasive Strategies In his seminal work The Art of Rhetoric, Aristotle (1967) presents three different persuasive strategies: logos (rational argumentation), ethos (reliability and credibility of the speaker) and pathos (emotional appeal). These three appeals aim to convince the addressee to reach “out of free choice” a goal desired by the addresser (Poggi, 2005: 298). This is achieved by convincing the addressee of the high value of the perceived goal through the manipulation of their beliefs. Logos Human beliefs are linked to each other according to a set of relations such as cause/effect and goals/means. The more reliable the connection between beliefs, therefore, the higher the degree of conviction with which those beliefs will be held. Showing people that newly proposed beliefs are highly consistent with their established beliefs in terms of cause/effect, goals/means, space or time, can trigger their logical analysis and make the argumentation coherent in their minds. Poggi (2005) identifies the use of logos as a logical, rational means of persuasion as the classical domain of argumentation. Dlugan (2009) adds two features of Logos. First, deductive reasoning i.e. one or premises that can be facts, claims, evidence, or a previously proven conclusion, and then derive a certain conclusion from them. Second, inductive reasoning consisted of premises which lead to an inferred conclusion14. Ethos Drawing the addressee’s attention
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