In Kate Chopin’s The Awakening, Chopin strives to argue social emancipation for women In the mid to late 1800’s women are viewed as homemakers, “Men demonstrate their dominance over women by generally confining them to the devalued registers of the home and the kitchen” (Brightwell 37). This is an era of raging patriarchy, if a woman is devoting time to something other than raising a family, she is looked down upon. Chopin emphasizes this through the social contrast between
They are asked to leave out of courtesy to them, not their wives or daughters. It was thought to be improper to see a woman give birth. “Childbirth was one area of life that was distinctly female; men...generally excluded from the birthing chamber” (Married Life). Although this allows for many sexist ideas to be shared, it also allows for the beautiful relationships between women to be created. Women had to stick together in a world run by men.
In the Victorian era, gender inequality was daily life. Men were most often the dominant power in a relationship whereas women were expected to be pure and innocent. In an era of arranged marriages, women belonged to their husbands and were attached to their households. However, Wilde has questioned these gender roles and created rather independent and powerful female characters in the play. Though Lady Bracknell and Jack have to give their consent as an approval of marriage to their wards, Gwendolen and Cecily, women show dominance over men in each relationship.
During the time periods from the Middle Ages to the end of the eighteenth century, women’s roles began to change. This was still the time when people lived in a male dominated society, and women were subservient to men. Women were meant to be innocent and uneducated, or at least this is what men thought. Women were not allowed to engage in society. Only the husbands could do that, and the women had to be obedient to their husbands.
It is ironic that the significance of power that lies with the female hostess is the same power that reinforces the patriarchy and the manifestation of the capitalist system. Hence gender is the recognition why the hostess is so potent in perpetuating the salaryman, corporate masculinity. In this framework, the salaryman’s daily life is a relentless conflict to authenticate himself as part of the societal construction of hegemonic masculinity. Nonetheless the fundamental issue of salaryman masculinity is that it is nothing other than an ideal. Consequently, it cannot be regarded as attainable model as such
Catharine MacKinnon, feminist theorist who argues against the theories propagated by Socialist Marxists, comments that in contrast to upper class women who are kept as possessions, proletariat women are more liberated in the sense they have certain agency to go out and earn a living. But is working in an industry marred with crime, heath hazards, and other anti-social aspects be truly liberating? Indian feminist discourse on sex work in circumscribed in a certain imagination which translates into the logic that Third World women enter sex work out of poverty (xxxiv). Jean D’cunha’s attempt to develop a non-western feminist position regarding sex work in India on the grounds of financial crisis in the society only reiterates this
Marriage was desirable for men and women. Men were considered to be the head of the marriages. Even though men were at the top they couldn’t beat or mistreat their wives. If so they would’ve been prosecuted or prevented from living with the woman. The men received the social rights to full educations, to property, and to vote, and the women were seen as, essentially, second-class citizens, relying on their husbands or fathers for near everything.
It is argued that social inequality occurs because of the conflict between the upper-class and the working-class, or as Marx defines it, the Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat. Based on the Manifesto of the Communist Party (Marx and Engels, 1848), the divergence emerges because the aim of the Bourgeoisie is to obtain a surplus-value that is produced by the work of the Proletariat. On the other side, the Bourgeoisie provides the Proletariat with the minimum required, such as a place to live and a minimum wage, in order to keep the society under control and avoid a rebellion. However, Marx did predict a revolt of the working-class that would eventually lead to a communist regime. When it comes to applying this theoretical approach to reality, it is evident to notice that no global revolt in regards to capitalism has occurred.
Another theory, known as conflict theory, involves society being maintained by one social class exerting power over another. Conflict theory stems from the ideas of Karl Marx, who critiqued capitalism as a whole. He believed that the working class was controlled by the powerful few. Concerning gender, this would put men in the role of the powerful few, and women in the role of the working class, or those being controlled. Conflict theory can be applied to many different types of relationships, for example, parent and child, husband and wife, and/or worker and employer (Lindsey,
The reader notices that an older generation of women have accepted their role in society over the years and silently approve of the male sovereignty by abiding by norms. On the other hand, Ammu represents a more rebellious generation by transgressing social norms of sexuality and breaking the “love laws”, hence providing a resistance to patriarchy. However, despite her quest for freedom and identity, she remains victim of male chauvinism at every stage of her life because of her marginalisation by social institutions of family and marriage, amongst