This is because researchers have different point of views, regarding how much of gender is due to biological and evolutionary factors (nature), or, they claim, that it might be the result of the person’s culture and their socialisation (nurture). Feminists note the ways in which a woman is different from a man; they stress the biological and cultural differences between genders. They also often reverse the dominant patriarchal values of a man by showing preferences to women’s qualities and their competencies over a man’s. Furthermore, a person’s gender identity is their own personal account of their gender. It is the degree to which a person identifies as a male, female, or any other
Feminism is considered both a scholarly obligation and a political movement that looks for justice for women and the conclusion of sexism in all manners. Nonetheless, there are several diverse types of feminism. Feminists do not share the same sentiments about what sexism comprises and what really ought to be carried out about it: they are at loggerheads when it comes to the significance of being a woman or a man and what political and social shortcomings gender has or ought to have. However, encouraged by the query for social justice, feminist query makes available an array of perspectives on cultural, economic, social, and political phenomena. Imperative topics for the theory of feminist and politics include the body, work, class, the family,
However, in postmodern fictions there is other attempting to define the concept of gender identity in light of the psychological perception. Carter’s postmodern feminist assumption emphasizes the role of the psychological aspects in forming individual’s gender identity. For example, in School of Sympathy (1948) Nancy Roberts defines identity as, “who we think we are who we tell our-selves we are or ought to be” (p. 19). She suggests that gender identity is a sense that we try to form. Nevertheless, she, in clarifying this definition, also highlights the impact of some norms, which can affect this feeling: “To some extent this identity is usually based on race, class, ethnicity gender and sexual orientation” (p. 19).
Judith Butler presents her fundamental theories of gender as performative in Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity, with the arguments that drag is performative and in its destabilization of the performative iterations of gender, drag performances can be construed as a political escape from the structures of gender binary oppositions. In her follow up work Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of Sex, Butler states that there should be no confusion that gender performativity is a qualified daily choice made by individuals. Here Butler argues that there is an iterability and repetition involved in gender performativity, which results in immense difficulty in trying to escape the constructions of naturalized restrictions of sex and gender through making conscious daily performative choices. The question of gender performance is related to ideas of gender identity in society, whereby certain codes of behaviour are assigned according to gender. There is an initial essentialist view of social identity whereby gender is determined biologically and gender is an immutable and recognizable physical essence.
(Norton 195) Hall admitted that they could not produce a family, so too men, this made them a woman. Norton uses this to further her argument that the idea that sex which is meant to correlate with gender dictates an individual’s role. Even John Tyos, Hall’s master perpetuated this. It is hinted that he knew the true nature of the ability surrounding Hall’s sex, yet Tyos insists that Hall is female because of the gender roles they perform. (Norton
Gender was classified as a social category linked with multiple social processes that generate and sustain differences between women and men not making it an innate concept for people. When gender is defined as a stable part of who someone is, it may be harder to understand the situational nature of this concept. In this way, gender theories are exceeding the understanding of gender as sex roles and sex differences to recognize gender as a multilevel structure. Gender is being defined as equally a structure and a process. This is an approach that promotes gender as a
In a third and final point, we’ll consider that both gender studies and feminism should be studied separately because gender studies goes further and takes into account sexual characteristics and oppression in general rather than only social oppression towards a biological sex, being women. Gender is something different from social movements. Indeed, in general, gender studies bring to a reflexion on what is being a male and what is being a female according to time and places. The main goal of these studies is to observe how a sex is supposed to reproduce a common thinking and acting according to its societal past. According to Joan Scott, one of the main and first theorists of gender studies: "In grammar, gender is understood to be a way of classifying phenomena, a socially agreed upon system of distinctions rather than an objective description of inherent traits.
They mainly suggest the female experience in a masculine and male-driven world. The change in the focal point and perspective to female characters attempts to overthrow the traditional masculine definition and representation of femininity. Duffy’s rework highlights the search for a new female identity outside masculine definition and creates a huge contrast to the traditional idea on female subjectivity and stereotypes. The shift of emphasis onto women empowers women and provides them with ability to take control of their circumstances. A few themes that are shown in these poems include feminism and social standards of women, self-strengthening and transformation.
Objectification is the placement of a particular gender in a state of servitude to the opposite gender. Primarily, female objectification places women in current society as figures that serve males. Female objectification is often based on physical attributes rather than mental and spiritual traits (Dawn M. Szymanski, 2011). The intended objectives fail to take into account the desires and needs that women need to develop healthily. As a result, female objectification serves as a debilitating factor in the progression of gender equality in current society.
According to sexologists John Money and Anke Ehrhardt, sex and gender are separate categories. “Sex, they argued, refers to physical attributes and is anatomically and physiologically determined. Gender they saw as a psychological transformation - the internal conviction that one is either male or female (gender identity) and the behavioral expressions of that conviction” (Sterling 4). Although there are biological differences between the two sexes, but gender roles are socially constructed. They determine how males and females should think, speak, dress, behave and interact with society. Richard Dawkins states in his book, The Selfish Gene that we are merely a product of our genes and our main purpose in life is to serve the genes, become distribution agents and ensure their continuance (Nye, Savage and Watts 273) .