The Theory of Intertextuality Intertextuality a term derived from the Latin intertexto, meaning to intermingle while weaving was first used by French semiotician Julia Kristeva in essays such as ”Word, Dialogue, and Novel,” in the late sixties. In this essays, she parted ways with traditional notions of the author’s influence and the sources of text’s , asserting instead that the fabric of all signifying systems, from simple objects like table settings to much complex ones like poems are created by the manner in which they transform earlier signifying systems. Thus a literary work is the product of it’s relationship to other texts and to language structures itself rather than the product of a single author. ”Any text,” she argues, ”is constructed of a mosaic of quotations; any text is the absorption and transformation of another” (66). Intertextuality accounts for the role of literary and extra-literary materials without resorting to traditional notions of authorship and thus subverting the concept of the text as self-sufficient and hermetic in totality, foregrounding, in its stead, the fact that all literary production takes place in the presence of other texts and are, in effect, palimpsests.
Feminist Narratology and its Significance to the present study Feminist narratology is one of the strands of narratology and its tenets helped answer research questions. Feminist narratology is part of the reconceptualization of narratology. It is expressed as transition from early structuralism studies of narrative which approached texts as objects that could be analyzed in scientific and systematic manner to a post-modern position where different kinds of questions are asked of the analysis, with the recognition that both the text and analysis cannot be neutral but may be ideologically loaded in some way (Currie, 1998). According to Knutson (1989), gender / power relations are encoded in narrative form, and at the three levels of fabula, story, and text, feminist narratology can break the code. A female obstacle, at the level of fabula, frequently signifies patriarchal overwriting.
Duffy’s Feminism and Dramatic Monologues: A Study of Some Poems from The World’s Wife. Yasser K. R. Aman, Minia University, Egypt. Abstract This research aims at investigating Carol Ann Duffy’s representation of feminist issues by recalling historical, religious and mythological figures using the dramatic monologue. Duffy subverts feminine archetypes through a series of dramatic monologues in her volume The World’s Wife whose structure is based on an eclectic mixture of influences that build up intertextual and metatextual webs reflected in themes of love, as well as the loss of love, sexist oppression, sadness and loneliness, and many others. Be it noted that The World’s Wife shows difficulties, set by a patriarchal society, in the way of women as well as men.
The analysis of Nietzsche and Derrida depicts fundamental factors that are essential in the explanation of postmodernism concept. The report at its final stages would narrow down to feminism. Some of the five areas that have been considered to explain the theory of feminism under postmodernism better include an understanding of deconstruction concept, gloss based on Nietzsche work, the textual analysis, and addressing feminism. All these analyses rely on the Derrida and Nietzsche then drawing a comprehensive conclusive remark. The section of deconstruction engages several logical thinking and paradox, and its application is traced to the nineteen sixties.
In his introduction to his book Museum of Words, Heffernan suggests that probably the accurate method to learn about the sister arts is: “ by simply comparing them, by observing similarities that help us to read _ more accurately to construct_ the signature of a “period” or to formulate a master theory of signification”(Heffernan 2004). In his book Museum of Words he writes about W. J. T. Mitchell’s analysis in the ground of sister arts analysis Iconology that “ treats the relation between literature and the visual arts as essentially paragonal, a struggle for dominance between the image and the word”(Heffernan 2004). When addressing the constructiveness of ekphrastic texts in The Moor’s Last Sigh, I followed theorist Ruth Webb’s categorization of the identifiable elements of ekphrasis, which corresponds, to the Greek Progymnasmata’s presentation of ekphrasis. She mentions how Quintilian, a Roman rhetorician, differentiated between “ a plain
Postmodernist techniques in “The French Lieutenant’s Woman” In order to analyze postmodernist literature, it is important to recognize the tools which are used by the 20’s English novelists to bridge the gap between fiction and non-fiction, past and future, tradition and its own relation with modernism. In Postmodernism literature are used various strategies and techniques such as Intertextuality, Pastiche, Metafiction and Experimental Playfulness which became trademarks for the writers. Julia Kristeva coined the term "intertextuality" in 1966, explaining that there are two relationships going on whenever we read a text: there 's the relationship between us and the author (the horizontal axis) and between the text and other texts (the vertical axis). It 's the vertical axis that gives us our definition of intertextuality; still, both axes emphasize that no text exists in a bubble and that we need to recognize how existing works shape current texts and readings (Shmoop Editorial Team). Critics believed that the text will never be recognized as an original and unique unit for its connections and links with other sources and other contexts.
The intertextuality is the significant critical thinking of the 1960s. It is one of the principles and tools of the critical approach, by which the text can be read in the light of the questioning of the interpretations of its marks, which raises the problem of productivity, through which the artistic work is produced in relation to other works. To a set an earlier text. In other world the intertextuality is a new text from previous texts and a summary of texts that have become compatible with each other. Only its impact remains.
Lazar (2010), who uses feminist critical discourse analysis articulating feminist discourse praxis. He writes an outlines of a ‘feminist critical discourse analysis’ at the nexus of critical discourse analysis and feminist studies, with the aim of advancing rich and nuanced analyses of the complex workings of power and ideology in discourse in sustaining hierarchically gendered social orders From the elaboration of the background of this study in the previous paragraph, the writer intends to observe the text from theguardian.com ,america-aljazeraa.com and Arabnews.com by using Sara Mills Model with the goal is finding the every portal news positioning woman and persuading the readers in these texts. By discussing this topic, it will provide a different viewpoint that a story that is presented in a wide variety of existing news portal. Additionally, it will provide a new perspective to the public that the discourse is often used to bring a certain ideology and how a marginalized groups through language and certain grammatical
There were a variety of concepts of meaning and methods proposed in approaching literature. In this assignment, I intend to apply Foucault’s ‘author-function’ and structuralism to read and interpret Jean Rhys’ short story. Foucault argued the necessity to examine and analysis the author as a position and function in discourse in ‘author-function’ analysis. Connors (at pp 59-66) also proposed that looking into the author’s life/experience, intentions and unconscious motivations are some ways in unraveling meanings of a work. To apply such analysis, knowing the author is a great starting point.
ABSTRACT The present paper examines ‘dynamic equivalence’ as a translation technique put forward by Eugene A. Nida through translatingMaamta: An Urdu Short Story by Ahmed Nadeem Qasmi (1916-2006). Nida defines translation as a process of reproducing the message in receptor language naturally equivalent to the message in source language.Through dynamic equivalent translation of Maamta, it has been highlighted that any theme or message in the translated text may have an impact on readers more similar to its impact on readers of source language. The power, purity and consistency of unconditional motherly love reflected in this story may have similar impact on the readers of any languageif dynamic equivalence is appropriately produced. Key words: Dynamic, Equivalence, Maamta, journey, Literary, Translation, Nida -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- INTRODUCTION Every language has its own peculiar structure, style, and the way of communication. It is perhaps based on differences between territories, and societies where the language is used as a tool of communication.