Historiographical account and historical novel share two main principles: First, in both genres narrative is the means of communication and second they discuss the bygone events. But narrative and fictional elements play a different role in historiography and historical novel. The novelist invents events and characters and intermingle them with the past in order to communicate the desired effects. Contrary to this, the historian does not create additions in theory or in records. Means the historian’s task is less mimetic and the novelist can create additions to the record.
History and historical fiction are virtually identical, realistically only being separated by one major difference; history is an account of the past, presented through facts while historical fiction recognizes the facts but is flexible with the author’s use of fiction. At face value, historical fiction appears to be virtually pointless; why would fiction be relevant in history, a recollection of the past based on facts? A historical novelist, Steve Wiegenstein, discussed the purpose of historical fiction in his writing “Understanding the Past” where he states, “We turn to historical fiction not for a comprehensive understanding of an era or event but for a sense of what the lived experience of that era would have been like; not for what happened,
Works of literature are built from systems, codes and traditions which are established by previous works of literature. The systems, codes and traditions of other art forms and of culture are crucial to meaning of a work of literature. Texts are viewed by modern theorists as lacking in any kind of independent meaning. This is called intertextuality. A text is permutation of texts, an intertextuals in the space of a given text, in which several utterances, taken from other texts, intersect and neutralize one another.
This is another main thematic concern in Slaughterhouse Five that is simultaneously conveyed through the narrator’s blurring of boundaries between reality and fiction. Rather than use analepsis and prolepsis as narrative time devices, as proposed by Genette (Barry 226), the narrator attempts to reconcile the gap between reality and fiction through the use of time travel as a narrative technique in order to allow readers to experience a similar disconcerting effect of war, bridging the gap between the fictional element of the narrative and the reality of war for the
by Derek Attridge (New York: Routledge, 1992), p.47. For deconstructive thinkers such as Jacques Derrida, Gilles Deleuze, and Emmanuel Levinas, deconstruction can be seen as the act of questioning and looking at limits and borders, but according to Spivak, who has given a general explanation of deconstruction, the violation of borders which characterizes the main feature of deconstruction brings the self or the text into a relationship with what can be named radical alterity or otherness. Franz Kafka is one of the iconic, most prominent and influential novelists and short story writers of the early 20th century as he seems to be accessible to any critical and philosophical methodology one might care to apply. In fact, Kafka appears to be the ideal model for literary criticism. The debate on the possibility and validity of any interpretation of his novel The Trial is endless.
As far as the play of language produces meaning from differance, meaning arises from the lack of authoritative, unique, absolute or central significance. In both their plots and their themes, Faulkner's novels often appear bereft of conclusive sense. The author whose literary ambition is to “leave a scratch on that wall - Kilroy was here” (Faulkner in the University 61) discovers the meaning of his works during the course of their composition. Meaning must await being said or written in order to inhabit itself, and in order to become, by differing from oneself what it is: meaning... It is because writing is inaugural, in the fresh sense of the word, that it is dangerous and anguishing.
Whether the author entered those texts consciously or spontaneously unconscious. Kristeva argues that the text is the intersection of other texts where we read at least a text in which is consistent with Bakhtin theory, that each text is a mosaic of quotations, and each text is absorbed and converted to other text. (María Jesús Martínez Alfaro 1996:268) Intertextuality in literature generally used within historiographic metafiction to impose question about the outcome of using history. It is possible to access the past by extracting it from the narration. The Postmodern history is melted historical and literary texts together.
Historical Criticism insisted that to understand a literary piece, we need to understand the author's biography and social background, ideas circulating at the time, and the cultural milieu. This school of criticism fell into disfavor as the New Critics emerged. New Historicism seeks to find meaning in a text by considering the work within the framework of the prevailing ideas and assumptions of its historical era. New Historicists concern themselves with the political function of literature and with the concept of power, the intricate means by which cultures produce and reproduce themselves. These critics focus on revealing the historically specific model of truth and authority (not a "truth" but a "cultural construct") reflected in a given
This combination of a deconstruction of form, which is fuelled further by the non-linearity of the novel, and self-reflexivity, is achieved by how the narrative voice is contrived, placing the novel firmly in the post-modern genre. At first glance, it may seem as though this is a realist
The plot, as the title suggests, is ostensibly Tristram 's narration of his life story. The title of the book is in itself a play on the novelistic formula that the readers of that time would have been familiar with- instead of describing the “life and adventures,” Sterne claims to present the “life and opinions” of the character. The life of Tristram Shandy introduces the readers to Tristram, the character but the opinions of Tristram are expressed through Tristram, the narrator and commentator. Thus, the novel becomes highly unconventional in its narrative technique and unfolds into a radically new kind of narrative. Even though Sterne’s novel incorporates a vast number of allusions and references to traditional works, there is relatively little in Tristram Shandy of the direct tradition of the eighteenth century novel.