They argue that the three ice stage theory reflects the ancient environment that treats change as a random disorder in an otherwise growing and peaceful globe. Robbin (2001) argue that this model has little similarity with today’s current environment of chaotic and constant change. However, Wren (1994 & 2009) regard Lewin’s three-step model as a groundwork for future research on change management and its approaches and techniques. In recent times, Wren (2009) further develops on Lewin’s work and contributions and noted how subsequent experts like Argyris and Schön ‘resounded Kurt Lewin’. Kelly et al.
“Imagination no longer has a function”, says Emile Zola in his essay, ‘Naturalism in the Theatre’. Many of the ideas which Zola has discussed in this essay have been taken up by modern theatre, both in theory and practice. Modern theatre, for instance, is aware of the fact that analysis and not synthesis should be the basis for theatrical production. It is with this theory at the back of his mind that Bertolt Brecht has discussed theatre’s role as an educator only if the elements associated with spectacle are removed from theatre. Zola was one of the first writers who puts forth the idea of talking about contemporary art forms by reflecting upon contemporary circumstances and not, for example, by blaming Aristotle for giving useless theories; this is also the concept that theoreticians of modern tragedy like Arthur Miller, John Gassner, Howard Barkner, George Steiner, Albert Camus and many more have taken up.
Solipsism is a philosophical belief that states only one 's own mind exists. Therefore, anything outside of the realm of one 's existence is uncertain. In multiple plays, Shakespeare 's characters are driven to explore truths they are given on their own accord. They rarely encounter the crux of the issue directly, so they run around the problem instead. For example, in Much Ado About Nothing, Claudio can prevent the majority of the play from happening if he asks Hero to explain what he saw in his window.
Other proofs of this motivation being important for the play can be found in various dismissing remarks about prophecies the protagonist and Jocasta make: “Ha! Ha! O dear Jocasta, why should one / look to the Pythian hearth?” (Sophocles 1086-1087); “O oracles of the Gods, where are you now?” (Sophocles 1068). But the ending of the story is meant to reveal how mistaken their words are, with all the prophecies fulfilling and leading to the family’s
Historical Development of Tense and Aspect A short overview of the historical development of temporal and aspect nature of tenses is necessary before applying these principles to the pericope of Mark 7:1–23. The linguistic discussion of the nature of tenses, especially the indicative tenses, gained renewed interest6 at the end of the last century.7 The present study cannot engage in the debate over the intricacies of the various theories promoted by the linguists. But at the risk of oversimplification, suffice it to say that Stanley Porter and Kenneth
Dissension from Imitation: Assessing René Girard’s “Myth and Ritual in Shakespeare: A Midsummer Night’s Dream” One observation René Girard brings up is a presence of two plays, or types of play, under the name of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Girard leads into main misconception readers, critics, and the audience usually have when reading A Midsummer Night’s Dream. They believe that the play is one of Shakespeare’s weakest due to their insistence on any text they read or any object in their environment must make sense by leading to a clear, nonnegotiable end and so dismiss events that do not fit into their knowledge of reality. Meanwhile, Girard claims this prevents this group from seeing the motives behind the character’s war-like actions. They, like Theseus, he writes, “dispenses… from looking at the remarkable pattern of the midsummer night and the disturbing clues it may contain concerning the nature of all social beliefs, including his own” (209).
He does not know what to do to change he things. His violence turns against himself. All that remains is All say... but to whom? because in 1977, the plays are written for theatre and not for public. Parrhesia is not the problem, as Foucault has defined the term.
With adaptations of classic texts from earlier periods, therefore, it is not only a question of filling the visual ‘gaps’ that appear to be suggested by the adapter’s interpretation of the original. There is often the temptation to portray a scene from a late 20th century perspective in order, ironically to sustain the adapter’s sense of what is authentic to the text. Such decisions are often made based on being faithful to what the author would have expressed. One example of this kind of justification for certain production choices may lie in Laurence Olivier’s claim that Shakespeare ‘’in a way wrote for the films’’ (preface to Olivier 1984). Recent examples of the adapter’s decision to ‘add’ something in terms of tone are in the BBC’s recent version of Pride and Prejudice: The character of Darcy is overtly sexualized, a clear object of the female gaze, culminating in the famous scene where Darcy strips to the waist to swim the lake at Pemberley.
Neil Lazarus noted that the term postcolonial emerged in the 1970 and 80s as a means of making sense of the tragedies that had occurred in many newly independent states, he also noted that the term was not a plainly neutral description of these states’ historical status . 4. Motivation and Significance of the Study: Opting for the use of novels and films to tackle the issues related to the Israeli Palestinian conflict is essentially a new topic and a challenging one in many ways. Little attention has been given to the combination of literature and cinema in general and to the Israeli Palestinian conflict in English Departments in Algeria in particular, thus, this study shall be a considerable contribution to both the study of the Israeli Palestinian conflict and the combination of literature and cinema in Anglophone studies. Ultimately, we look forward that this humble study will prompt further research in these
The confrontation of the audience with characters and happenings which they are not quite able to comprehend makes it impossible for them to share the aspirations and emotions depicted in the play. Brecht 's famous "Verfremdungseffekt" (alienation effect), the inhibition of any identification between spectator and actor, which Brecht could never successfully achieve in his own highly rational theatre, really comes into its own in the Theatre of the Absurd. It is impossible to identify oneself with characters one does not understand or whose motives remain a closed book, and so the distance between the public and the happenings on the stage can be maintained. Emotional identification with the characters is replaced by a puzzled, critical attention. For while the happenings on the stage are absurd, they yet remain recognizable as somehow related to real life with its absurdity, so that eventually the spectators are brought face to face with the irrational side of their existence.