Chapter 2 Introduction In this chapter, the proposed model is supported by theory of Maslow, Herbage’s theory and etc. Literature reviews related to the research and with theories supporting this study. Hypotheses were derived from the proposed model. 2.1 Literature Review Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Starting point from Abraham Harold Maslow’s Hierarchy of Need, people progress through a series of five stages of needs and that they are motivated by achieving the next highest needs. Maslow (1954) maintained that humans have at least five basic needs: physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization.
Maslow’shierarchy of needs also influenced Herzberg’s Motivational Hygiene Theory that stressed on the different needs of the individual. Herzberg concluded that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction were the products of two separate factors: motivating factors and hygiene factors. Hygiene factors surround the doing of the job. They include supervision, interpersonal relations, physical working conditions, salary, company policy and administration, benefits, and job security and should be properly managed. Motivation factors lead to positive job attitudes because they satisfy the need for self-actualization.
He also stated that as one need is fulfilled, another need takes its place, and hence human needs are recurring in nature. The basic need hierarchy model constituted of 5 basic needs which are : 1. Physiological needs- need for food, water, etc 2. Safety needs- need for law and order, security, etc 3. Social needs- need for love, respect, etc 4.
Maslow 's hierarchy of needs is frequently represented in the shape of a pyramid with the largest, yet most important levels of desires at the bottom of the pyramid, although once you make your way to the top of the pyramid, it highlights the needs for accomplishing your potential and becoming all that you can be. What does it tell us about Motivation? One of the main concepts linking to motivation is Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Any human, no matter your condition, have needs. A need is something essential in a person’s life.
Herzberg believes that hygiene factors are important but not enough for job satisfaction and motivation. If a hygiene factor is lesser than what the employee expected, he will be less motivated as well. In contrast, if the hygiene factors are enough, the employee’s level of satisfaction will only be neutral. Only the presence of both hygiene factors and motivators can motivate and satisfy the employee. Thus, if an employee is paid a lot but has no control over his job will still probably be unmotivated.
This leadership is classified into two type of factor which is motivator factors and hygiene factors. Both factor have their own pro and cons. Motivator factor is a factor that identify the satisfaction and motivation level of the workers while hygiene factors is a factors that identify the dissatisfaction and lower down the motivation level of the employee performance (Contractzilla, 2014). How does this motivation factor and hygiene factor can reflect and motivate the company
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs So Maslow theory simply says that there are five needs in our life. 1. Psychological Needs are air, food , water, shelter and sleep 2. Safety needs are health, security, protection and freedom 3. Love and belonging needs are love, friendship, affection and family 4.
This bunch of factors is termed as Hygiene factors which include salary, company policies, status, security, relationship with colleagues and working condition etc. On the other hand there is another bunch of factors whose presence help in ensuring satisfaction of the employees of an organization. This bunch is termed as motivators and it includes responsibility, growth, responsibility, advancement and
Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is displayed as a pyramid and is built on a foundation of basic needs that must not only be met but satisfied before higher levels of the needs are met. On the bottom of the pyramid are physiological needs and these are required to sustain life such as breathing, water, food and shelter to mention a few. Once these are met, people can move onto the next level of need which is safety. Safety needs can be financial, medical, safe environment and job security. Next on the pyramid are social needs which include friendship, belongingness, love and acceptance.
supervision, relationship with boss/peers, work conditions and salary) are said to lead to dissatisfaction while the Motivation factors lead to satisfaction, enhance motivation and are intrinsic to the job and the job design. It is imperative to understand that the two types of factors are not mutually exclusive. Hence management must try to fulfill both types of need for