According to Jones (1962), "Social change is best described as variations in, or modifications of, any aspect of social processes, social patterns, social interaction or social organisation." M.D.Jenson, similarly refers to social change as “modification in ways of doing and thinking of people.” Giddens (1989) states that
The working class, through trade unions and other struggles becomes conscious of itself as an exploited class. As Marx’s theory suggests exploitation of this kind will result in revolution in the favour for social change. Elster’s criticises this as he explains how at times, surplus can be thinly spread over the exploiters trade partners. Moreover, an independent farmer producing more than he can consume may not know of his exploitation status and therefore may not be motivated to revolt. One may argue that this way, Marx’s requirement for us to compare the amount of labour a person performs and the
The 19th century was a period of widespread social, economical and political problems in the United States, from the 1890s to the 1920s in need of reform. Both parties were created by the people’s dissatisfaction with the government and its ability to appeal to the majority. The Populist movement was founded my farmers, laborers and middle class civilians that wanted government regulation in the economy, more authority in the government, educating immigrants, to prevent government corruption and high positions to be based on experience. The Progressive movement was caused corruption in politics, political machines, rapid urbanization and discrimination and equality. The Progressive movement was based on the idea that the government should have a more active role in solving economic ills.
Whereas Marx tends to focus on economic influences. Weber generalises the political to the economic. He stressed that economics, individually, couldn’t explain the class system. (Max Weber, An intellectual portrait page 86) In contrast, Marx argues that during capitalism the Bourgeoisie exploited the Proletariats for their ‘surplus value, this is the extra revenue made after paying the Proletariats for their labour. Marx stated that the ruling class control all the power and use it to undermine and exploit the working class.
The industrial revolution that happened in Europe between the 18th and 19th centuries , brought technology and manufacturing to all fields of industry . This was the era of modernity and enlightenment . modernity changed societies and people 's point of views of themselves . Some sociologists see that modernity is a good thing for the world , while others see it as an evil that damaged the values in societies. It also changed the ruling system and brought new ideologies to modern societies .
A term that has been applied to a variety of responses to the economic and social problems rapid industrialization introduced to America is Progressivism. Progressivism had started out as a social movement and grew into a political movement. The progressives from the early stages had rejected Social Darwinism. In other words, they were classified as individuals who believed that the problems society was facing at the time (poverty, violence, greed, racism, class warfare) were best to be handled by providing a better education, safe environment, and an efficient workplace. Progressives lived mainly in the cities and were educated individuals.
They try to attempt to mitigate the injustices of the working class within society, by providing then the benefits they deserve, such as; “free trade, prison reform and protective duties” (The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Chapter III, paragraph 7, page 32). But they do not try to abolish the Bourgeois, but for them to benefit the Proletariat, and create social order. And the last category is critical-utopian socialism and communism. Both authors explained that this category fail, as they believe that social changes can only occur during civil wars or
The idea of social realism is that in order to go beyond one must overcome and endure. Social realism first came about during an economic downfall in the 1920s. It was an art movement that social realists started to represent the working class. The word social refers to society and the word realism refers to accepting a situation and dealing with it accordingly. Social realism seeks to identify current issues that happen to ordinary people in society.
Social change refers to an alteration in social order of a society. Social change includes changes in social institutions, social behavior or relations. Social change may refer to the notion of social progress/socio-cultural evolution, i.e, the rational idea that society moves forward by dialectical or evolutionary means. It can be a change in the socio-economic structure, social revolution etc. Social change maybe determined by cultural, religious, economic, scientific or technological forces.
Marx believed this divide would happen because the workers are dependent on their wages as a means of survival where as one of the employer’s objectives is to lower wages in order to reduce costs. This clash of interests would inevitably bring on a resistance from the proletariats. “Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communist revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win” (Marx and Engels 1848) chpt, 4.