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Middle Range Theory In Nursing

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Analysis of TFC A theory is classified as a body of principles, concepts, and/or propositions that explain a phenomenon (Merriam Dictionary, 2017). According to Fawcett and DeSanto-Madeya’s nursing framework, a nursing theory involves an objective detailed explanation which includes assessment of scope, context, and content (Fawcett & DeSanto-Madeya, 2013). Theory Scope In the nursing discipline, concepts and propositions must be examined for quality and comprehensiveness to determine the scope of a theory. Thus, the first step is to determine what type of theory is being evaluated: grand theory or middle-range theory. A grand theory is categorized as being broad in scope (i.e. study of society), while a middle-range theory is categorized…show more content…
These social conditions consist of socioeconomic status (SES), access to flexible resources (i.e. knowledge, power, money, education, social support), ethnicity, gender, and social network. Likewise, ‘fundamental social causes’ can determine if certain populations of people can minimize their risk for morbidity and mortality because these ‘social causes’ or determinants are linked to multiple risk factors that may lead to disease progression and adverse health outcomes (Link & Phelan, 1995). Because social and economic resources are significant determinants, ‘fundamental social causes’ are linked to multiple disease outcomes and multi-risk factor mechanisms (i.e. fundamental social causes have effects on disease despite the changes in risk factors) (Link & Phelan, 1995). Moreover, TFC is derived from a concept by Stanley Liberson, a sociologist, that causality consist of ‘basic causes’ that have significant effects such as when one effect in a mechanism declines, the effect of another becomes more prominent – it’s an inverse relationship (Link & Phelan, 1995). This concept is supported by several studies that link social conditions with disease progression which will be discussed further in the evaluation…show more content…
TFC has five main relational propositions: one, ‘individual risk factors relate to social conditions that lead to disease progression’(i.e. access to healthy food and exercise to avoid obesity); two, ‘how social factors/conditions influence an individual’s autonomy’ (i.e. homeless male/female may resort to prostitution for survival despite the risk for sexually transmitted infections); three, ‘SES relates to disease’ – as some risk factors were eradicated, other risk factors emerged (i.e. people of higher SES were more knowledgeable and favorably capable to access resources that lowered their risk of acquiring diseases; four, ‘fundamental social causes’ is the directional influence between SES and disease over a change in time (i.e. with changes in disease, risk, knowledge of risks, and treatments, these conditions are transferable as health situations evolve; therefore, those individuals whom have the most resources can avoid risk and minimize disease progression); five, the reciprocal relationship between ‘resources and disease’ (i.e. knowledge, power, wealth, social support and connections impact health and determine morbidity and mortality) (Link & Phelan,
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