This resulted in the failure to enforce the norm strictly and prevent the conflict. At the dawn of the conflict, Soviet President Nikolai Podgorny sent a letter to Khan stating that the conflict should be solved politically without force, while further mentioning the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in guiding their opinion. This letter exemplifies that the USSR did play an active position in the beginning of the conflict in conveying Khan to stop the genocide. In this way, Soviet interests of the Cold War were put aside to some extent. However, once the geopolitical intentions of the US and China were made clear, the USSR turned towards pursuing their own Cold War interests.
Seeing as the Vietnamese were communists, in the eyes of the U.S., the Soviets had just gained an ally in the South-East Asia region. Vietnam saw the war as a fight for independence while the U.S. saw the war as a fight against the communist regime, aiming to instil its capitalist approach in order to alienate the Soviets from the rest of society. This is a perfect example of numerous things in the theory of Realism, namely: the balance of power, the idea that peace and stability are most likely to be maintained when military power is distributed to prevent a single superpower from controlling the world; the security dilemma, the tendency of states to view the defensive arming of adversaries as threatening, causing them to arm in response so that all states’ security declines; and national interest, the goals that states pursue to maximize what they perceive to be selfishly best for their country (WPTT, 2011, pp.32-33). The U.S. saw the Vietnamese becoming allies with the Soviets as a security dilemma, so in order to somewhat restore the balance of power, a war was declared on the Vietnamese, all to preserve its national interest. The U.S. declared war on Vietnam even though there was no real need for one, as the Vietnamese were much too busy fighting for their independence from the Chinese in an attempt to differentiate
I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. I believe that our help should be primarily through economic and financial aid which is essential to economic stability and orderly political processes” (“Truman Doctrine”). Truman had wanted to support those nations that had been separated by Soviet communism. This shows that President Truman is ready to do whatever he can to contain the spread of communism and stop the United States former ally, the Soviet Union, since the effect of their actions would do good to them, but no harm. Humanity had evidently been affected by the United States help towards Greece and Turkey.
Eisenhower feared that communism would spread to other countries but countries cannot be considered “dominoes,” so the domino theory is false. The domino theory was then reintroduced during the Vietnam War and the Kennedy administration (“Vietnam War”). Many people see the domino theory as something entirely true. They think the theory is applicable because of the blood shed in Vietnam and its surrounding countries because of the spread of communism (Moïse). The American government saw Ho Chi Minh as one of the playing pieces in the game of communism.
While at first Lenin negotiated with the parties and was in favor of the accord. Later Lenin changed his view on the accord and rallied support against the accord. In his paper “Resolution of the central committee of the RSDLP(B) on the opposition within the central committee” Lenin states his opposition to the accord. This opposition is clearly shown in the following quote from his paper “the purely Bolshevik government cannot be renounced without betraying the slogan of the soviet power, since the majority at the second All-Russian Congress of Soviets, without excluding anybody from the congress, entrusted power to the government” (pg. 64).
In this essay William Lutz would be considered someone who fakes history for the government like in the Ministry of truth, to please the government. Although this essay states there was blood on their shirts during that time, individuals continue to say, “I was wrong” and “No one died in Tiananmen Square”. No one denies this and they protect the government in results of fear. They are being forced to lie and say the army did not hurt anyone nor killed anyone. The government in China wants people to “Love the Party, love the socialist motherland”, similar to Nineteen Eighty - Four because “The two aims of the party are to conquer the whole surface of the earth and to extinguish once and for all the possibility of independent thought” (Orwell 193).
From Mouffe’s and Laclau’s Marxist interpretation of populism, the communist regimes of the Cold War which had toppled down about a decade before they wrote their chapters, would probably be legitimate political systems. Those regimes were an extreme attempt to establish the rule of the “people”. Despite such populist features of communist regimes, Mouffe refuses to deal with populism other than right-wing populism, as discussed above. As a result, she would not give those communist regimes the negative label of populism. Likewise, Laclau would restrain from giving a negative label to those regimes, instead, he calls all forms of politics populistic (Laclau 2005, 47).
On one side there are the people. Kotkin refers to them as the ‘civil society’, a group of people ‘imagining’ themselves as opposition when in fact they did not contribute anything to the fall of the Communist regimes. In contrast to this, he labels the other side as ‘uncivil society’, the Communist regimes. They were a society because they contained a social ranking, shared an ideology and lived the same lives. This is seen as more important because the fall occurred within the sphere of the governments.
Zero-sum game is the notion in realism theory where ones gain an advantage then the other loses one. For a moment, German was the holding of “one” and the allies holds “zero” with the Enigma. However, when Turing’s team broke the code and Germans still think that the Enigma was unsolvable then the allies turned the table and hold more advantage against Germany. At the end, with this “one”, Allies could beat German in WWII. Another example realism theory is reflected to how MI6 deliberately put Soviet Spy inside Turing’s Team in hope that Turing can help MI6 to filter information that is leaked to Uni Soviet.
Before Stalin become an ally to the U.S. and U.K., he was an ally to Nazi Germany. Stalin sought to achieve only what he felt was in his best interest. Stalin wen so far as to break promises that he made at the conference of Yalta to organize free elections, and inserted a puppet government. Stalin believed that the communist political, social, and economic ideology was what he could spread throughout the world. Just as President Wilson wished to spread democracy far and wide, Stalin desired to spread communism far and wide.
The Cold war began because two sides had different views on communism. The Soviet Union wanted it to spread to other countries, while America wanted it to stop and have it disappear. Three main reasons why the war started was one, two sides of communism were being fought over, two, fear of one another, whether it is from being hurt or beaten, and finally, competition. Without any of these happening or being a part of the war, the Cold War would not have been the same. Without the Cold War, mistakes would not have been learned until much later, for the Cold War is a highly important event that happened.
If America was successful in taken down the power of the communist forces in Korea, the countries would naturally find peace again. Overall, Truman wanted Korean War to be a limited war, with the sole purpose to protect South Korea from communist attacks. On the other hand, General MacArthur believed that the Korean War was the chance to eradicate all communist roots and prevent it from spreading to other Asian countries. To him, this was more efficient because then there would be no need to be involved in other aggressions in relation to communism. He saw the origin of the problem lied in the Pacific Hemisphere and the European countries should not be taken into consideration in this war.
Within the agreement, Ocalan states that a representative democracy benefits the national bourgeoisie, but the general public will not receive freedom and justice through this form of government (Posch 94). Ocalan hypothesizes a new form of “collective democracy”. Within this form of government, all participants would be required to adhere to the values and ideologies of the KCK-agreement and embrace it. In addition to this, he wishes to create a large confereration within the Middle East, which will be a collective “people’s democracy” (Posch 95). The political views within the KCK-agreement draw a strong similarity to Soviet-style authoritarianism.
(Villafaña 6) The USSR and the U.S. understood the need to avoid military conflict with each other so countries not in the NATO and WTO became the best battle grounds colonial and newly independent countries in Asia and Africa (Natufe 355) Partnered with Africa’s anti-colonial movement in 1956 (Natufe 356) Soviet foreign minister stated if the USSR could not get an Italian country, it should focus on Belgian Congo. (Namikas 80) Krushchev became the leader of anti-imperialism in Africa to increase the communist movement (Namikas 81) Seen as a threat because it would give military help to countries who had the same beliefs. (Namikas 148) Patrice Lumumba Fought for the independence of the Congo. He described himself as an African nationalist and not a communist. (Gerard et al 58) He was seen as “ another or worse Fidel Castro” by the CIA.
Stalin desired to be the leader of the Communist party, and was willing to manipulate his opponents and play them off against each other, which he did successfully. He first joined forces with Grigory Zinovyev and Leon Kamenev (other replacement candidates) to lead the country. He used them to get rid of the most likely replacement for Lenin’s position, Leon Trotsky. Lenin had always wanted Trotsky to replace him if anything had happened; however Stalin’s heart was hardened and he ended up kicking him out of the political loop. Even in Lenin’s political testament, he worried about Stalin’s mental stability and stated that he should not be chosen to rule (Service 124).