According to Smith, the recognition of mental illnesses have forced the courts to question legal culpability (6). For example, the 1724 case Rex v. Arnold introduced the principle of “proof of insanity as an exemption from intent” (Smith 6). This led to the adoption of the “Durham Criterion,” in which the courts find that the defendant is not legally responsible if they are proven to have “substantial incapacity to conform to the law” (Smith 13). If we compare the legal history of mental illness to Szasz’s claims that mental illness is a myth, the legal treatment of psychopathy can be shown as another form of toleration. Szasz states that the myth of mental illness functions to create a “social intercourse [that] would be harmonious, satisfying, and the secure basis of a good life” (96).
Insanity is described as a, “Severe mental illness” that clouds the brain with a false reality(MeriamWebsterDictionary). In order to effectively illustrate an insane character an author must use detail and figurative language. Author of “A Tale Tell Heart”, Edgar Allen Poe reflects insanity by using a variety of literary devices. Emily Dickinson also uses figurative language and literary devices to show insanity in her piece “I Felt a Funeral, in my brain”. Although, both authors use similar ways to show insanity, Poe most effectively displays insanity within the narrator of the story.
By injecting these two elements into his thought process, Raskolnikov eliminates these two major components of madness. Additionally, by giving the reader insight into Raskolnikov’s mind, Dostoevsky constructs Raskolnikov as a methodical, yet tormented, individual. Thus, one wonders whether Raskolnikov truly
According to Freudian psychoanalysis “repression of the instinctual id leads to the psychopathology of everyday life, which in turn makes violent behavior commonplace.” ( Jennifer McClinton-Temple1, 18). Likewise, Herbert Marcuse in his book Eros and Civilization (1955) attempted to fuse Freudian and Marxist theories to undercut the cultural codes that over determine and repress human psychology and sexuality, resulting in deviant tendencies. The complexity of human violence has been studied in modern Psychiatry. James Gilligan in his 1996 book, Violence: Reflections on a National Epidemic, offers a theory on the origin of violent behavior. According to Gilligan “ much of what appears to be anomalous or inexplicable regarding violent behavior is actually predictable and understandable given a certain set of conditions.” ( Dereck Daschke,
They are seen as treatable diseases that are diagnosed just as any other illness would be. Mental illnesses are described as, “behaviors, thoughts, or feelings… viewed as pathological or abnormal…” (Hoeksema 5). The question of what normal is was raised in “The Myth of Mental Illness,” as well as most academic readings regarding psychiatry. It is stated in Szasz’s book that, “a norm that must be stated in terms of psychosocial, ethical, and legal concepts.” (114). This concept is not what we use today, but makes a great deal of sense as explained by
With the first-person point of view from Chief, it allows the readers to see how insane he is and how confining the ward really is through his psychotic haze (Macky 4176). This is a very important aspect of the story. It helps to give the reader an idea of what state the patients are in both emotionally and psychologically (Tanner 22). Everyone in the ward is in a different state, some of the patients are worse off than others but through Chief’s narration the reader gets an insight of what really is happening on the ward and to them. It also adds development of the story as the story unfolds through Chiefs different states: emotional and intellectual (Novel for Students 227).
While looking into the mind of a narrator who battles between claiming to be sane while portraying a reality of insanity, readers who have read Edgar Allen Poe's, "The Tell-Tale Heart," have stated the narrator is insane. A closer look shows that he is actually sane by means of nervousness, patience, and murder. The author, Edgar Allen Poe suggests sanity in the narrator by saying, "Why will you say that I am mad?" Throughout the story, the narrator's actions brought forth contempt, showing readers the narrator is attentive of his own surroundings. He analyzes nervousness through his theory of sanity, proclaiming it as merely having acute senses.
In the story “Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde” by R.L.S three characters represent Freud’s psychoanalysis of the id, ego, and superego. Freud describes id as the devil sitting on your shoulder or the evil side. In addition, the superego is a human moral conscience. Finally, the ego is a good balance between good and evil.
To properly determine whether or not the narrator in Edgar Allen Poe’s “The Tell Tale Heart” is insane a definition of insanity must be brought to light; possible explanations for his transgression must be examined, and the scope of information that has been provided must be understood for what it is. To understand if someone is insane or not, American society must lay bare a universal definition for insanity. As a whole, society today does not shy away from using words such as insane or crazy. This careless use of words leads to the definitions becoming less clear. Without a clear-cut definition for insanity not only does the word lose its power, but it also causes people to create their on definition for the word, usually with themselves
The Cask of Amontillado Insanity; the state of being mentally ill or showing signs of madness. Insanity is a generalized term that describes behaviors within multiple psychological disorders. According to Dr. Willem H. J. Martens, PhD, “Antisocial Personality Disorder, is characterized by diagnostic features such as superficial charm, high intelligence, pathological egocentricity and lack of remorse or shame.” Similarly, these personality traits are often evident within the characters of Dark Romanticism writing. As exemplified within Edgar Allan Poe’s short story The Cask of Amontillado, the narrator, Montresor, displays characteristics of Antisocial Personality Disorder through his morbid acts. Montresor uses manipulation and insincere speech to lure his victim; symptoms of Antisocial Personality Disorder.