The arrival of the first Europeans in the Americas is dramatically captured through the many writers who attempted to communicate what they saw, experienced and felt. What is more, the very purposes of their treacherous travel and colonization are clearly seen in their writings; whether it is poetry, history or sermons. Of the many literary pieces available today, William Bradford and John Winthrop’s writings, even though vary because the first is a historical account and the second is a sermon, stand out as presenting a clear trust in God, the rules that would govern them and the reason they have arrived in the Americas.
When viewed under a feminist lens in Confessions, the most notable female character, Monica, risks losing her significance as a compassionate caregiver in Augustine’s life. In chapter three of Confessions, Augustine discusses Monica’s dream with the readers. After Monica tells Augustine of her dream of his perdition, Augustine recalls trying to twist Monica’s dream to ease her “downcast[ness]and daily floods of tears” (III.19). A modern feminist would have issues with Augustine’s description of Monica’s emotional energy, saying that she is entitled to her emotions, because she is his mother and deserves the utmost respect, regardless of her gender. Augustine’s indifferent attitude response to Monica when he “tried to twist [the dream’s] meaning”
In his 4th-century autobiography, Confessions, St. Augustine of Hippo describes his path from wickedness to righteousness. Knowledge of the self, he learned, facilitates one 's knowledge of God; comprehending the all-powerful demands self-assessment (Burt). How one may come to know oneself, and thus know God, preoccupied early American writers, who explored human transformation and perfectibility through a range of theologies and philosophies.
The Iliad was a really good representation of the chaotic war-torn times of the area surrounding the Mediterranean Sea; this includes the countries Rome and Greece. It was a time where nations were trying to expand their power and influence and warriors were claiming their spoils of war. I mean the beginning of book I of The Iliad, Achilles and Agamemnon are arguing over the rewards and the spoils of war. Agamemnon didn’t want to give up his prize girl Chryses in order to please the God Apollo and stop the plague and the rain of arrow falling from Olympus. However, in the end Agamemnon took Achilles’ girl, Briseis, which really hurt Achilles in the end. These warriors took a lot of pride in the things or people that they
One Life, by Scot McKnight, was an appealing testament of how we should go about life in a way that reflects God’s mission and plans for His people. The purpose for this book was so common people reading are, hopefully, influenced to live out their “one life” for God. McKnight explains, in great detail, of what God’s intentions are for us. He also provides the reader with many options on how to overcome temptations we face. This book was discussing several obstacles that may seem as a concern, but are also great descriptions on what every human may run into; however, it is also very clear in McKnight’s writing, that we can abstain from those worldly desires. McKnight wrote this book to portray what Jesus meant about God’s kingdom. Each chapter
Status Viatoris has great implication to our lives as it relates to Faith, Hope, and Love, the theological virtues. Some of the characters in our readings highlight a specific theological virtue more than others, yet all need the concept of Status Viatoris to orient themselves on the correct path in their life. Aylmer’s unwavering faith in science did not lead him to cherish his wife, but to manipulate and abuse her. Charlotte Bronte, recognizing her own sinful tendencies, saw that she needed to place her hope in the Lord, and not her friend, lest she idolize a mere mortal. The characters in Popular Mechanic, though they were convinced that they were acting out of love, actually caused harm to their child. Augustine, because of the great length of his writing, perhaps most accurately captures how when we are not oriented, ignoring the concept of Status Viatoris, we lack all three of the theological virtues. These writings indicate the importance of the theological virtues as we live out our finite lives.
Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics begins by exploring ‘the good’. Book I argues that, unlike other goods, “happiness appears to be something complete and self-sufficient, and is, therefore, the end of actions” (10:1097b20-21). In other words, happiness is the ultimate good. But how does one achieve happiness? Aristotle formulates this in the context of work, since for all things, from artists to horses, “the good and the doing it well seem to be in the work” (10:1097b27-28). Much like the work of a harpist is to play the harp, “the work of a human being is a being-at-work of the soul in accordance with reason” (11:1098a7-8). Moreover, in order to achieve the good, it is important that each being performs his work excellently. While all harpists’
In Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, he outlines the different scenarios in which one is responsible for her actions. There is, however, a possible objection which raises the possibility that nobody is responsible for their actions. Are we responsible for some of our actions after all? If so, under what circumstances? Based on an evaluation of Aristotle’s arguments and the objection that stands against it, people are responsible for voluntary actions and involuntary actions whose circumstances or particulars they themselves have caused.
Augustine’s conception of the sin in The Confessions is vastly different from today’s version of sin. In the modern world, Christian sin is mainly focused on the seven deadliest whereas Saint Augustine added more onto this list. The book mainly explores St. Augustine’s struggle for celibacy and converting himself to Christianity. Augustine also created a concept he termed as original sin. Original sin states that sin is inherently within all of us, we are all born evil and thus have to fight to be good. St. Augustine altered the blame from Christianity’s original views on the devil causing sin, to one focusing on how humans are born evil.
Augustine of Hippo was a Christian philosopher who played a big part and impacted Christianity greatly. Augustine helped Christianity by helping the Church by finding answers to questions that could have damaged the Church if they went unanswered. He explained to the Church original sin, the Trinity, and clarified the concept of predestination. Augustine was the bishop in the city of Hippo located in North Africa. He was the son of the famous Saint Monica, but despite his mother being a devout Christian his father believed in paganism. Augustine dedicated his life to Christ after reading the epistles of Paul.
Sandel’s two objections to utilitarianism are individual rights and a common currency of value. Sandel’s first objection is individual rights as he believes that utilitarianism does not respect individual rights because utilitarianism deals with total utility or sum of satisfactions (37). Hence, utilitarianism does not focus on the individual but
Justice is often used interchangeably with fairness and has connotations to the divine or natural laws. However, within the ancient Greek text The Republic, by Plato, an in depth discussion concerning the origins and nature of justice take place. A significant contributor to the inquiry of Justice is
Human is born with the natural ability of reasoning whether or not it is a gracious gift from God as claimed. According to natural law, human is capable of deciding whether an action is morally right or wrong. We do not create what is evil and good, rather, we discover what is right or wrong. Besides, humans are morally obliged to use their reasoning capability to discern what the laws are and subsequently acting in conformity with them. Therefore, there is no reason why divine law must be superior than man-made law when human is just as effective and arguably, even more effective. It is true that human law is self-imposed, capable of violation, subject to exception, modification and repeal. Human law can be binding in conscience if it is formed
Debate surrounding the question of citizenship, and the ensuing ideals about what makes a good life, has existed for as long as citizenship itself – providing many contrasting views and interpretations about the peak of human flourishing. Aristotle himself recognizes this fact, stating that “…there is often dispute about the citizen…since not everyone agrees that the same person is a citizen” (Politics 65). This is indicative, then, of the fact that there will be many different interpretations of human existence and its purpose; due to the fact that there is not even agreement on citizenry and what the ideas of it reflect for human life. The juxtaposition of two such views, those of Aristotle and Locke, allow thinkers to evaluate not only two