It is only used as a means to pass the time. Absurd dramatists write in a language that is ditched from content and represents the stagnancy of life. Khaled Besbes in his work ‘The Semiotics of Beckett 's Theatre’ says, “There is a link between language and reality which undermines the very logic of representation. This is shown by most of the characters in Beckett 's plays when they play with words to spend time while this logic tends to be the futility of life. The characters are ironically playful in the use of language in order to be able to cope with their existential failure.” In Waiting for Godot the conversations between the characters seem to be meaningless.
But, with novels like Wuthering Heights, and the writings of Vladimir Nabokov and Samuel Beckett, there emerged villainous or insane narrator-heroes who forced the term ‘antihero’ to fill a gap that the term ‘character’ could not fill. The Ecyclopaedia Britannica cites Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes as example of an antihero, or the protagonist of a drama or narrative who is notably lacking in heroic
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing 's Minna von Barnhelm or Soldiers Fortune is a Lustpiel. As suggested in its name, a Lustspiel is a comedy. The play is introduced as ein Lustspiel in fȕnf Aufzȕgen verfertiget im Jahre 1763. (Lessing 2012) Lessing combines tragedy and comedy in the sentimental comedy. The sentimental comedy is that Tellheim must overcome his moral trials which include bribing the saxons and feeling he is unworthy of Minna 's love.
Nihilism in Samuel Beckett’s ‘Waiting for Godot ' T.Nandini Department of English ABSTRACT Martin Esslin writes very lucidly about how the theater of the absurd works like poetry rather than narrative. Traditional narrative drama tells a story, develops dynamically. The characters grow and change before our eyes, and that is the point of the story-to reveal that growth, that change. We reflect on why it happened, what it implies, how we relate to it ourselves, what it means. But the theater of the absurd doesn 't aim for traditional narrative because it rejects such narratives as too artificial, too contrived.
Ionesco put his focus on the tragedy of language. In fact he bothers the audience with the disintegration of language, which is one of his main targets of this play. All over The Bald Soprano can be analyzed as a parody where the author mocks about the universal bourgeoisie which, to reveal a dehumanized mankind which became spiritually seen empty. Therefore Ionesco used the language as an important implement to highlight this dehumanization. In concrete the language of the Smiths and Martins is indeed old fashioned and dry adding slogans and a lot of simple expressions.
"Bellerophoniad" is the little satisfying of the tales in Chimera, partly because its hero is a barren and fanciful hero who abjectly tries to achieve the mythic heroic motif and falls. His story has trivial sex and spirit of the three and he is the most self- centered and distinguishing of Barth 's fiction heroes. The story articulates the most beliefs towards myth and harmony with Bellerophon 's fake character, many of those characters are not positive. By the climax of the tale, when the internal ambiguity "phony" within the title, extends much more a meaning of both the narrative and its protagonist, even fiction, ill harmony, full of borings, clump, gap a kind of unnatural metaphor (319-20). The tale is about an anti-myth and becomes nearby to the intentional fallacy by introducing, a story of over confidence on the mythic form by depending on an analysis of that pattern.
Macbeth, originally titled as The Tragedy of Macbeth is a tragic play written by William Shakespeare in 1606. The story is loosely based on the history of England, Scotland and Ireland even though it has been largely distorted and exaggerated for entertainment purposes. Shakespeare’s Macbeth confronts the issue of personal and political power lusting, and the harmful influence it brings on, both physically and psychologically. Shakespeare tells us the story of how lust for power pollutes one’s mind just as it did for Macbeth and changed him from a valiant hero to a tyrannical villain. All of Shakespeare’s tragedies mainly focus on the diversity of humankind’s mind, the ever-prominent traits of human beings – sensuality and affection – the emergence and the development of emotion along with their power to destroy and create things on a much larger scale.
Which brings out my next point, the theatre of the Absurd. Theatre of the Absurd plays a great role in this play and is influenced by the philosophical concept of existentialism, where there’s meaning to everything but at the same time everything is nothing. An example would be the character Lucky, despite the name “Lucky” he lives his life as a slave of another character, Pozzo. Lucky is known as a character that has a lot of knowledge but is unable the share it as he doesn’t have the ability to speak coherently. This can be shown in the long speech made by Lucky in the first act, where he talks about a lot of topics that seem unrelated to each other, suggesting that Lucky’s current life is very complicated and is shown in a darkly humorous way.
Nathaniel Hawthorn published the first part of his Twice- Told Talesin 1837. Edgar Allan Poe wrote mystery and imagination between 1832 and 1849. The first Indian English short story, is Naked Shingles by Iswaran who published his first collection of a short stories in1941. Rabindranath Tagore also credited finest short stories to Indian English literature. Raja Rao, Mulk Raj Anand and R. K. Narayan who are the contemporary short syory writers of Isvaran.
Now I came to the five great Indo Anglian fictionists of twentieth century who have enriched the branch with their rich and valuable contribution. They are Mulkraj Anand, Raja Rao, R.K. Narayan, Bhabani Bhatttacharya and Manohar Malgonkar. Born in 1905 in Peshawer Mulkraj Anand was a prolific writer who made lower and middle class people, their social and economic condition and the injustice and inhumanity directed towards them by society as the subject of his three great novels- Coolie, Untouchable and Two Leaves And A Bud appeared in thirties like a perfumed wind. Untouchable is the most popular novel of Anand. It covers one whole day during which the hero Bakha faces countless social problems.