One of them is socio-centrism which is the focus of the topic. Human socio-centrism conceptualized most simply as group egocentricity. According to oxford dictionary socio-centrism is defined as dominant or principal focus on society or the community, rather than the individual. Socio-centrism thought basically operates from two central tendencies: i. Be in quest to get what it wants without considering the right and needs of others.
It is obvious that, animals are physiologically, metabolically, and anatomically different from human beings, therefore, they will react differently from human beings. Consequently, how can results from animal experiments be reliable and work on humans yet thy react differently? It is possible for the tests to fail on humans because of the anatomic and metabolic difference. And using them for experiments so as to use the same experiments on humans is very wrong. Let us stop this cruel procedure on animals because we are denying them a normal life yet, it is not yet proven that after the process is done on animals, and it can work well with human beings (Lund et al.
The main principle for the theory of justice, justice as fairness, is determined by a silent spectator. Rawls’ approach is individualistic and the concept of justice as fairness may not be feasible to a certain extent in a society with a collective manner of thinking. A further criticism of the theory is Rawls’ acceptance of class division as he feels the need for creating a ‘difference principle’. No background is given as to why there is a state of class division and this goes against his inclusion of equality alongside liberty as principles of
In this view, individuals are measured as factors who are contained in their own progression and, by means of their actions, they are able to make things happens. According to agency view, among other individual elements, people have self-beliefs through which they apply some control over their ideas, emotions, and activities. Therefore, people are both products and producers of their own surrounding and social system (Pajares, 2002) Upon of all the concepts that impact people’s presentation and performing, and locate at the center of social cognitive theory, are self-efficacy beliefs (Pajares, 2002). The foundation of human motivation, well-being and individual attainment is supplied by self-efficacy. If people believe that their attempt can create the requested results, they have enough stimuli to take action or insist in the face of adversities (Pajares, 2002).
They see everything as socially developed and reject the presence of an autonomous target reality. Contextual Constructionists: Conversely Beast (1993) take what is known as a "Logical," "moderate," "moderate or frail" perspective of social constructionism, accepting that some basic reality exists and that not everything is a social improvement? They accept that by selecting from, translating, and arranging this basic reality, people fabricate social developments that have distinctive appearances relying upon the social and social
In articles by Jeff McMahan, “Eat Animals The Nice Way”, and by Maureen Nandi Mitra, “Animals Are Persons, too”, they talk from two different positions where we should eat animals and another where we shouldn’t experiment on them and let them be. The both sides of this topic are very controversial because there are many opinions about this and in this essay i will explain the both sides and in between of the argument. Between the arguments of animals being experimented on and animals being people who are our pets; there is a major controversial conflict about it. In the article, “Eating Animals the Nice Way.” by Jeff McMahan, he states, “Many people are opposed to factory farming because of the terrible suffering it inflicts on animals, yet see no
Given the fact that our upbringing constitutes loads of social interaction in different environments, which shape us as individuals, it is fairly understood that the individuals are generally different from each other, bringing social inequalities. But the point is, whether these differences could at any time be equalized, bringing us all to the same point, where everyone would shape the path to enhancement of our social and economic standing, without constraints. Being able to equalize everyone in a common starting point, would then mean that we are to be held responsible for any human related affair that we chose to divert from or to strive for. But, can we really be held responsible for the things we cannot control? The
In the articles of Jeremy Rifkin, Victoria Braithwaite, and Ed Yong, there's a deep research and debate whether animals should be given the right to have human rights or not. All authors include their perspective on the issue and provide scientific evidence. However, I believe that there should be a separation of rights between animals and humans because there is no biological basis for drawing the line. Giving the right to apes, what factors exclude other mammals like dogs, cats, and birds. In Jeremy Rifkin’s article, “A Change of Heart about Animals”, proves his statement that many of our fellow creatures also “feel pain, suffer and experience stress, affection, excitement and even love..”.
This is where the social theory comes in to play and approaches this relationship in a different way. Developed in 1969 by Travis Hirschi, social control theory attempts to answer the ultimate question of why we all do not commit crimes. Social control theories are theories of socialization in which they consider the extent to which individuals learn certain habits, attitudes and perspectives of a society. Hirschi suggests that individuals who have a strong and flexible bond to society will be far less likely to engage in criminal activities or delinquent behaviors, whereas those who have weak bonds will. In other words, the health of a group is determined by how well all the members of that group conform to the group’s norms.
I believe strongly that animal testing should not be permitted for research purposes because animals have senses and feeling just like humans, tests on animals show different results on humans due to the fact that they are biologically different, and it has many negative environmental consequences. To begin with, animals used during these horrific ways and experiments have feelings and senses just like humans. During experiments done on these innocent animals, it is illogical to think that animals do not feel any pain. These vulnerable creatures feel pain when they are cut open alive and their bodies release a stress hormone named cortisol which is in human bodies as well. According to Vahdettin Bayazit, "All research protocols are stressful to all animals, for example, behavioral testing, blood sampling, novel situations and environmental manipulation, stool sampling, reproduction techniques such as penile vibratory stimulation or electroejaculation, venipuncture, and saliva or urine sampling"(Bayazit 1024).