This quarter in IGE 121- Rationalism, Revelation, and Enlightenment: The Ancient World there has been a lot of material covering death, suffering, fate, destiny, and good and evil. Three out of the many readings that cover death and suffering would be “Book of Matthew” and “Antigone” and “Book of Job”. A reading of this quarter that reveals suffering would be “Prometheus Bound” and “Book of Matthew”. An additional text that disclose one of themes is the Mayan book “Popol Vuh”. People often ask what the reasons are on why good people have to suffer.
Beowulf is an Old English epic poem. Seamus Heaney did a translation on Beowulf. Beowulf is separated into three different sections. In every story the hero and outcast all have a major, but different role to play. The major outcast in Beowulf is Grendel.
One of the most infamous throughout the history of the order is Israel Regardie. Regardie was a latecomer to the order and he joined Felkin’s Hermes Temple of the Stella Matutina in 1934 (Cite This). He is infamously known for publishing The Golden Dawn a few years later, breaking his oath of secrecy (Cite This). This book revealed every order rituals, from 0 = 0 to 5= 6 as well as the original knowledge lectures and flying rolls, instructional manuscripts written by Mathers and Westcott. While at first Regardie was condemned for his actions he has since been absolved because he relatively complete form has helped to keep the golden dawn from being lost to the mists of time.
The Beowulf poem and the Poetic Edda A comparison between Norse and Anglo-Saxon literature There are some texts that have changed and formed our view on literary history, and two of the more notable pieces are The Beowulf poem and the Poetic Edda. The two have redefined our view on the literary past of both England and Scandinavia and have laid the foundation for what we acknowledge as literature. J.R.R Tolkien wrote in his Essay Beowulf: The monsters and the critics ”Barely all the censure, and most of the praise, that has been bestowed on The Beowulf has been due either to the belief that it was something that it was not — for example, primitive, pagan, Teutonic, an allegory (political or mythical), or most often, an epic; or to disappointment at the discovery that is was itself not something that the scholar would have liked better — for example, a heathen heroic lay, a history of Sweden, a manual of German antiquities, or a Nordic Summa Theologica.” He continues to debate for the poems importance as literature, instead of as a historical document. It is evident that the Beowulf poem should not be viewed as a historical document, but it is hard to deny its connections to its context and its time. In this essay I will explore and compare the Norton critical edition of The Beowulf poem and the revised edition of the Poetic Edda.
As the literary critic Raymond Williams once said, ‘culture’ is ‘one of the two or three most complicated words in the English language’. It has its roots in the Latin word ‘cultura,’ which—derived from the root word ‘colere’— meant ‘cultivation’ with regard to things such as animals and crops, and retained this meaning when it passed into English in the early fifteenth century. However, in the early sixteenth century, ‘culture’ began to be used metaphorically to refer to the cultivation of the mind, evident in the following sentence written by Samuel Johnson in a short paper of 1752: ‘she neglected the culture of her understanding.’ From the late eighteenth century onwards, this second definition began to overtake the first as being the commonly
Literature, art, and music have always found ways to transcend the physical barriers and borders humans put up. They influence cultures other than the ones of their origins. Similarities between religions, mythologies, and folk stories have been noted often throughout time by academics and historians. The holy texts of some major religions like The Old Testament and the Quran share many overlapping literary themes and events with older religions and folk tales, like the ancient Sumerian poem; “The Epic of Gilgamesh”. Many examples of overlapping themes is the presence and references to great floods, supernatural influences, otherworldly gardens, and battles between good and evil.
One outstanding interpretation of both is their willingness to change. Indeed, change does not come easily. Their ability to change is slightly affected by secondary characters such as the following: Enkidu in Gilgamesh, and Mulan's father deteriorating health. This change drives both characters to become completely different, as each of them brings honor to their villages separately. As is described by Mitchell, “The city is his possession, he struts through it, arrogant, his head raised high, trampling its citizens like a wild bull” (72).
Alliteration, Imagery, and Kenning in Beowulf In the Anglo-Saxon poem “Beowulf”, the author’s used multiple different literary devices, three in particularly stuck out throughout the entire story, being alliteration, kenning, and imagery; the literary devices were used to connect the story, and help the reader understand the life of Beowulf, and emphasize the parts that were not clear throughout the story. The author uses literary devices throughout the story of “Beowulf” to emphasize on Beowulf’s heroism, and to connect Beowulf to the epic poem. The use of alliteration is used to create a voice that only the readers will understand from reading throughout the story, an example following the idea of alliteration would be “Whichever one death fells must deem it a just judgement by God” (lines 400-441). Alliteration is to be described as a repetition of similar consonant sounds. Another example of alliteration in “Beowulf” would be on lines 446-447, “He will carry me away as he goes to ground, gorged and bloodied” (446-447).
There are several instances where deception creates a false sense of reality in both the book and movie. Fitzgerald writes his book in first person with Nick Carraway as the narrator. The book presents Nick as garrulous. Therefore, the reader sometimes would detect uncertainty since the entire story is told by Nick. However, in the novel, Nick states "I am one of the few honest people I have ever known" (Fitzgerald 63).
The Two Sides Eurylochus The epic poem, The Odyssey, written by Homer (Fagles translation) has many different archetypes within the story that causes both the story and the journey to move on to the nest destination. In the same time causes the hero, Odysseus, to continue his journey either by some better or worse situations. In the aforementioned poem there is a character called Eurylochus. He is one of Odysseus’ crew, and he represents more than one archetype within the story. He is included in the poem so he will be represented as an ally and a foil for Odysseus to highlights the leadership of Odysseus.