Promises are meant to be kept, but more than often promises lead to broken promises. Promises made to the Indians that their land would be forever theirs, became a broken promise. White settlers were starting to move toward the west beyond the Mississippi. The Indians’ lives were about to change due to new lives moving and the rise of Gold, Silver and the railroad. State government, settlers, pressured the federal government to take Indian land for their own beneficial use and more than one hundred thousand Indians from the Southwest were forced off their land and moved to reservations west of the Mississippi River.
After many excruciating and bloody battles, one example being the Battle of Horse Show Bend, Native American tribes began to realize they couldn’t defeat Americans in war. Instead they developed a strategy of appeasement. This plan consisted of the Native Americans giving up a large portion of their land, in hopes that they could retain some of it. However, appeasement and resistance did not work. Following, Andrew Jackson convinced congress to pass the Removal Act of 1830.
Multiple factors led to the start of the French and Indian War. A power struggle was already occurring, and Britain and France were already enemies. Colonists were aligned with their respective countries, and Native Americans were caught in the middle of European expansion. Natives were more apt to be allied with the French due to their trading economy, but both sides had Native American allies depending on the circumstances. 1 “To safeguard their lands west of the mountains, Native Americans played off one European power against another.” The Ohio River Valley was in dispute and both nations laid claim to it, which ultimately led to the conflict.
In the late 1830’s, where the United States was growing rapidly, whites faced an obstacle while trying to settle in the South. This area of land was home of the Cherokee and other Indian tribes. The Cherokee Indians signed treaties hoping that white settlers would not come for their land. Prompted by the state of Georgia along with the president, Andrew Jackson, whom did not like Indians, expelled the Cherokee Indians from their homeland. Cherokee’s pleas to Georgia and the Supreme Court did little to stop their removal.
Many Native Americans tried to fit in with American culture, by learning to write and read, establishing governments similar to those of the United States, develop their own written languages, and start a plantation system with slavery. However, it was not sufficient. The New American still did not like the Native Americans, and wanted them to go. President Andrew Jackson was the one who thought of immediate solutions to the problem. Indian threaten westward expansion in the mid-nineteenth century with Second Seminole War, Treaty of New Echota, and Trail of Tears, To begin with, the Second Seminole War started after the passage of the Indian Removal Act in 1830.
The poor whites were raiding the Indian settlements. The governor at the time, William Berkley, became angry with the poor whites since he wanted to maintain cordial relations with the natives who were selling him deer skins and furs, which he was importing to Europe. In retaliation, the peasant farmers burned Jamestown to the ground. The revolt latter is dissolved, but the rebellion had a lasting impact that led to the hastening of the end of the use of indentured servants in favor of slaves. The Native Americans captured in the frontier wars continued to be enslaved but each act of aggression against them by the European colonialists made future diplomacy with neighboring Indians more difficult as they felt assaulted in their home ground (Chapter2 75).
Manifest Destiny (first developed in 1845) was the idea that during the nineteenth century, America not only could but would expand from coast to coast. The accomplishment of this idea came with the removal of indians in areas like the great plains, as well as many smaller conflicts in between the indians and the Americans. The Americans attempted to make a compromise with the indians so that they would leave peacefully, examples of this would be the offer to pay the indians in the form of supplies and annuities. The idea was a good one until Americans denied a payment in 1862 because John pope regarded the Indians as “maniacs or wild beasts ” and states that they do not deserve treaties or anything of the sort. Another big factor in the expansion of America from coast to coast was the construction of the Transcontinental Railroad, not only with the people that it had brought to the west for the work, but the ease that it had provided for those who wanted to travel from the east to the west and did not have the money nor the time.
Another reason that the confederate was banned is because people thought it was a rebellious flag. They thought the confederate flag was banned because they found it offensive. because the government didn’t like it because they thought it was a rebel banner and didn’t want it to start anything with anyone else so they banned it so there was no problem with anyone else or anything else. Also because people want it to be back up because some people don’t like it down or banned. Another reason they outlawed the flag is because it wasn’t showing any respect for people that fought in a war and got no respect for people that died.
The Trail of Tears was an effort by president Andrew Jackson to relocate Native Americans to regions in and around present-day Oklahoma. Jackson claimed this mass migration was beneficial to the american people and helped them to advance civilization; however, many historians today say that this was a cruel injustice. Almost everyone involved in the Trail of Tears felt poorly about the mistreatment, especially the Cherokee people that were being harmed and killed. The conditions were not fit for any human being and the soldiers removing them did serious psychological damage to the men, women, and children they took.
Overall, as Philbrick closes out the book the tensions in the Native American tribes and the English colonist would lead to King Phillips War. As we continue in Philbrick’s book he goes in great detail of King Phillip or also known as Metacom the son of Massasoit. Phillip began to grow uneasy with the economic balance between the colonist and the Native Americans. This led Phillip to gain followers to aggravate English settlements but, would not kill any settlers during this time and, Phillip would continuing doing this until the English killed one of his own men. This would start an assault by the Native Americans on the English settlements leaving very few survivors to tell about the horrific events.