Paine believed this was a denial of basic human rights and freedom. Therefore, while asserting his views for the future government, Paine states, “As to religion, I hold it to be the indispensable duty of all government, to protect all conscientious professors thereof, and I know of no other business which government hath to do therewith” (82-83, Larkin). Paine indicates that government should be held on the basis of fact, reason, and law. Religion should play no part in the decision to govern, rather it should be a protected right of the
Samuel Morse said in Imminent Dangers to the Free Institutions of the United States “that no foreigner who comes into the country… shall ever be allowed the right to suffrage.” (Doc. D). As said earlier, the nativist movement tried to protect democracy, but left behind the traditional principle of equality. The declaration says that “all men are created equal” not just those born in America. Everyone deserved the unalienable rights of life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness, which includes the right to vote.
Lewis also rejects the claims that the moral law could be simple a social convention for two main reasons. Firstly, he states that anyone who believe human morality has ever developed should also believe that there is a standard, independent of society invents, where the society’s morality can grow closer or farther away. Secondly, the author claims that a common thread of values is identifiable in every culture. Like how the law of gravity tell us about behavior of physical objects, the author contrasts the moral law with the natural law which tells us how to behave (C.S. Lewis, 1952, p. 17).
However she warns us of adhering ourselves to such groups especially when we abandon our own critical thinking processes and accept a group's set of morals to be the universal truth. As Simone de Beauvoir writes in The Second Sex ““No group ever sets itself up as the One without at once setting up the Other over against itself.” (44) ‘They’ can’t belong in our group because ‘we’ don’t belong in their group. This is how the notion of the Other is established. Didion condemns this as she says a person's actions does not “confer upon anyone any ipso facto virtue.” Applying “good vs. evil” as a measurement to form an opinion on others could be seen as the equivalent of using the similar vs. different dichotomy to deduce the value of another person or culture. In Montaigne “On Cannibals” he claims “Each man calls barbarism whatever is not his own practice” elucidating to some subconscious suitability we all have of deeming whatever is different or out of the norm to be bad (7).
In the end, I will conclude that the decision of Plessy v. Ferguson is a pernicious decision. A general interpretation of the Equal Protection of Laws clause would mean that every individual must be treated in the same manner as others in similar conditions and circumstances. A breach of this clause would take place if the individual is forbidden from entering a certain area only because he/she belongs to a particular race etc. However, the US Supreme Courts have interpreted this clause in a different way. The equal protection clause was interpreted as an equal application of all laws.
Thoreau demonstrates the accountability between the two parties: “The government itself, which is only the mode which the people have chosen to execute their will, is equally liable to be abused and perverted” (Thoreau, 1849/1998, p. 127). The people who compose a nation must not be complacent and inactive. Inactivity prevents progress. Immobile people personify immobile blood. What good is stagnant blood?
Cultural relativism is the understanding of other cultures in their own terms. To achieve the understanding of the rituals used in the cultures of another, one must be able to look at them from an emic (insider) perspective. One must also be able to look at his own culture from an etic (outsider) perspective. The ability to look at one’s culture from the etic point of view will make it easier to explain the rituals to someone from a different culture, for example, rites of passage. Rites of passage are used to mark a life stage and are celebrated by tradition or religion, meant to separate a specific group.
Book One of The Social Contract by Jean-Jacques Rousseau focuses on the reasons that people give up their natural liberty in order to achieve protection from threats to themselves and their property. This results in the formation of a legitimate sovereign where all members are equal. Rousseau believes that no human has authority over another individual because force cannot be established. He argues that no individual will give up his or her freedom without receiving something in return. I will focus my analysis on how the social contract states that we must give up our individual rights in order to obtain equality and security.
Appiah’s mechanically effective assertion contrasts with the content of argument, and its flawed foundation. Of the many ideas that Appiah presents to discuss his idea of Cosmopolitanism, one of the main premises on he bases his argument is that “we must care for the fate of all human beings, inside and outside our own societies” (87). This premise is based on the erroneous assumption that all humans have the same regard for others, and the daily world tragedies caused by human hands, things such as school shootings, terrorism, kidnappings, homicide, etc., contradict this idea. Appiah then goes on to say, “It is the obligation of every human being to do his or her fair share in making sure that everybody gets what they are entitled to” (95).
Postmodernists believe in pluralism. Religious pluralism is the belief that one must be tolerant of all religious beliefs because no one religion can be true. Postmodernists’ philosophy is based on anti- realism. Anti-realism is the belief that reality is subjectively constructed by human though. Anti- realism suggests that there is no “real world” out there (Noebel, 119-125).