This topic was chosen out of the interest in the arts and specifically the arts within America. I aim to explore how art evolved and affected the Civil Rights Movement and changed the attitude of racist and unjust people who lived during the 1960s. The evolution of art throughout the 1960s in America introduced new styles of art into the world and had large political relevance in accordance to the Civil Rights Movement and unjust gender discrimination. The American arts industry is one of the most widely recognized and most successful industries to date and much of its success is owed to the Civil Rights Movement that occurred during the 1960s. During this period of time, African Americans were extremely disadvantaged and oppressed.
Ralph Waldo Emerson once said, “Do not follow where the path may lead. Go instead where there is no path and leave a trail.” These words of Emerson perfectly portray individualism. Imagine a world where love is illegal. Imagine a home without privacy. Imagine a mind without freedom to think.
Throughout history there has always been a recurring theme of change, how the individuals in each generation deal with this change sets the precedent for culture. For the most part, humans fear and dread change; the unknown nature of change has the ability to expose humanity’s greatest weaknesses and strengths, and fears. The examination of the two films Easy Rider and Old Joy is for the purpose of analyzing how they represented their corresponding cultures, and how their cultures compare to one another, though set in different times, these films have surprising overlaps and accurate reflections of their respective time period. Beginning in chronological order, Easy Rider takes place during a pivotal time in American history: The late 1960’s. A time of transition from old thinking to new, the time during the late 1960s was known as the “Hippie Movement” or “Hippie Era.” As this culture predominantly affected the youth of the time many young people came to be known as “Hippies,” those who didn’t want to follow the rules of the previous generation.
Not only did people accidentally let the Nazi party get too far in the 1930s, but now, in the 1960s, the American public was getting dangerously close to the same thing: it is hard to realize until afterward. The message becomes more evident as the musical continues, and is perfectly embodied by Cliff 's outburst, "If you 're not against all this-you 're for it. Or you might as well be" (Ebb 79). The most apparent embodiment of the way in which Nazism creeps into people 's lives is the catchy song "Tomorrow Belongs to Me." The song is uplifting, and in the 2014 version which I watched, sung by
Luce Irigaray "The sex which is not One" Luce Irigaray, in her article, "The Sex which is not One" explores female sexuality deeply, different from the views at Luce Irigaray 's time. The article was published in 1977 and was also translated to English later. The text in the article is an adaptation of her thesis "Speculum of the other women" named after a round mirror which reflects and magnifies the inside of the female genitals so the doctor can examine them. Luce Irigaray also does the same thing considering genitals to be seen as Woman as a whole. In her article, she mainly emphasizes on two things: She criticizes the male bias Western systems and she tries to create new ways of speaking and writing that show women 's specificity.
When the Baby Boomers generation emerged, it was already “considered to be a very different generation than its previous ones” (Owram, 1997). The Baby Boomer Generation not only witnessed some of the greatest social changes in history during the 1960s and 1970s, but also participated in them, just like the Civil Rights Movement as well as the Women Right’s Movement, which created the expectation for this generation to give its next generation a better world than the one they found. However, the Baby Boomers created a societal trend towards a thinner body standards for females which caused the women’s image to decrease all the way until 1959, setting a limit during the 1960´s until now. During the 1950´s, Marilyn Monroe was not only considered "the standard of voluptuous beauty”, but also a sex symbol (Sheehan, 2004, p. 97) as by that time she was a major media icon and the sensation of the moment for being on the cover pages of magazines like Playboy, LIFE, and Vogue (n.d, 2006). However, when the 60’s began, the “British invasion” of America was not only causing changes in music, but also in fashion and with it a new role of how women were at that time.
These instruments that are socially associated with male and female are often constructed by parents, teachers and the media. This is viewed as huge contributor to reducing musical opportunities of both sexes. Other gender issues that arise in United Sates music include the different gender roles observed in music videos and lyrics of the songs. In todays United States society issues of gender decency echo across the music industry. Women artist and dance performers are criticized for their provocative dance and outfits.
The 1960’s was truly an age of reform and revolution that set the stage for Susan Sontag 's, “Notes on ‘Camp,’” published in 1964. The decade saw the emergence of large scale political campaigns aiming to increase opportunities for all people, such as the Civil Rights movement. Some reformers demanded social change and denounced capitalism in order to create a counterculture encouraging self-exploration and fulfillment, often involving sex positivity, drug use and communal living. To counter some of these liberal movements the modern conservative movement was born with the ideals later reflected in the Reagan era. Additionally, 1960’s America saw a the development of several new forms of art such as Op art (or Optical art), Pop art, Performance art and Feminist art.
As time progressed, the Civil Rights Movement was born, as well as the Women’s Rights Movement. Though these movements have shaped what the American societal structure is today, the movement that has been on its rise to this day is the Gay Rights Movement. The Gay Rights Movement was created as a result of the Stonewall Riots in 1969 and the injustice of inequality among gay individuals in society. Since then, gay rights activists have been working on making LGBTQ+ Community members feel accepted in society and gain more rights as the years go on, and even to this day people are fighting to attain more rights for LGBTQ+ Community members. Just as the form of art comes together to speak up for various social injustice movements, Randall Mann is a poet that spoke up, and still continues to speak up for gay individuals to this day through the literary form.
Katja Tuomenvirta, 89568, Scottish Literature, December 22nd 2014 The Women Who Look Like The Queen – The Construction of Identity in Jackie Kay's ”Not the Queen” and Liz Lochhead's Mary Queen of Scots Got Her Head Chopped Off In this essay, I will analyze the way identities are constructed in Jackie Kay's ”Not the Queen” and Liz Lochhead's Mary Queen of Scots Got Her Head Chopped Off. I will focus on the idea of identity as something that is performed and constructed, not as something essential that is ready in us from the moment of our birth. The idea of identity as a performance is a prevalent one in queer theory (see e.g. Butler 2006a), and the idea that identity is something constructed through, for example, social interaction, has been