Anaplasmosis Research Paper

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Anaplasma Phagocytophilum

Anaplasmosis is a disease caused by a bacteria called Anaplasma phagocytophilum. It is transferred to humans by the bite of an infected tick. This pathogen can be deadly if it is not treated. It was first discovered in 1933 by Sir Arnold Theiler and first recognized in patients from Minnesota and western Wisconsin. At the time the disease was known as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE). In 2003, it was later renamed to anaplasmosis. In recent years there has been no major outbreaks.

Anaplasmosis is more commonly transmitted by deer ticks and western black-legged tick. Tick bites are usually painless, causing some people who develop anaplasmosis to not be able to recall being bitten. People who have anaplasmosis
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Anaplasmosis can be especially dangerous because it can be transmitted through blood transfusions. Anaplasma phagocytophilum bacteria has been shown to survive for more than a week in refrigerated blood. If contaminated blood is donated to someone compromised immunity they may be more prone to having a case of anaplasmosis. If they do happen to develop the disease it will be a more severe case than usual do to their weak immune systems. Recognizable symptoms commonly seen with anaplasmosis are a fever, headache, muscle pain, malaise, chills, nausea, abdominal pain, cough, confusion, and a rash although rare with anaplasmosis. Severe symptoms may include difficulty breathing, hemorrhage, renal failure, or neurological problems. People should be treated with a tetracycline antibiotic (usually doxycycline) for 10 to 14 days. Sometimes longer treatment may be necessary because of the possibility of a coinfection with Lyme disease. If treated is not given in a certain time frame then the patients a may get unwanted complications such as viral and fungal infections. The death rates for anaplasmosis increase when treatment is delayed. Statistics for death rates range from 2% to 5%. Anaplasmosis can be diagnosed by the testing of a blood sample. Anaplasmosis may be preventable by applying bug repellent to exposed skin area when outside. House pets should be checked for ticks

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