Anatomic Differences Between Rods And Cones

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1. Describe why humans have a blind spot.
The natural blind spot (scotoma) is due to lack of receptors (rods or cones) where the optic nerve and blood vessels leave the eye. There can also be artificial blind spots when something blocks light from reaching the photoreceptors, or when there is local adaptation of the retina as just after seeing a bright light.

2. Describe the functional and anatomic differences between rods and cones.
There are two types of photoreceptors in the human retina, rods and cones. Rods are responsible for vision at low light levels (scotopic vision). They do not mediate color vision, and have a low spatial acuity. There are two types of photoreceptors in the human retina, rods and cones.
Rods are responsible for
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When we hear a sound, the wave enters the ear canal and causes the eardrum to vibrate. The vibrations then passes through the middle ear which contains three bones that are connected. From there this gets fluid moving into the inner ear. This fluid maneuves through hair like cells which then turns those vibrations to nerve impulses. Those impulses are then moved to the brain bythe auditory nerve. Those impulses are turned into sound in the brain.

5. Name and describe the major structures of the middle ear.
The middle ear contains three tiny bones known as the ossicles: malleus, incus, and stapes. The ossicles were given their Latin names for their distinctive shapes; they are also referred to as the hammer, anvil, and stirrup, respectively.

6. Describe the factors that contribute to sound localization.
Sound localization refers to a listener 's ability to identify the location or origin of a detected sound in direction and distance. It may also refer to the methods in acoustical engineering to simulate the placement of an auditory cue in a virtual 3D space (see binaural recording, wave field synthesis).

7. What is the function of the somatosensory system?
The somatosensory system is the part of the sensory system concerned with the conscious perception of touch, pressure, pain, temperature, position, movement, and vibration, which arise from the muscles, joints,
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Other taste buds are found in the back of the mouth and on the palate. Every person has between 5,000 and 10,000 taste buds. Each taste bud consists of 50 to 100 specialized sensory cells, which are stimulated by tastants such as sugars, salts, or acids. When the sensory cells are stimulated, they cause signals to be transferred to the ends of nerve fibers, which send impulses along cranial nerves to taste regions in the brainstem. From here, the impulses are relayed to the thalamus and on to a specific area of the cerebral cortex, which makes us conscious of the perception of taste.

9. Describe the areas and major functions of the primary motor cortex.
The primary motor cortex, or M1, is one of the principal brain areas involved in motor function. M1 is located in the frontal lobe of the brain, along a bump called the precentral gyrus.

10. Describe Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.
Parkinson’s Disease: a progressive disease of the nervous system marked by tremor, muscular rigidity, and slow, imprecise movement, chiefly affecting middle-aged and elderly people. It is associated with degeneration of the basal ganglia of the brain and a deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine.

Huntington’s Disease: a hereditary disease marked by degeneration of the brain cells and causing chorea and progressive dementia.

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