An important function of the dendrite is the integration of various input signals. Synapses are the gaps between the axons of transmitting neurons and the dendrites of receptor neurons. Electrochemical signals are carried across the gap by neurotransmitter molecules. These end up at the receptor proteins located in the ends of dendrites. There are various neurotransmitter chemicals.
It is responsible for receiving and processing information concerning smell. It is connected to the amygdala and enables the brain to form memories based on smells. It forms part of the limbic system. The Basal Ganglia These are a group of neurons found in cerebral hemispheresconsisting of input nuclei, output nuclei and intrinsic nuclei (Steiner & Tseng, 2010). The input nuclei receives signals and the output signal sends the signals to the part of the brain that processses the signals.
The spiral-shaped cochlea is part of the inner ear; it transforms sound into nerve impulses that travel to the brain. The fluid-filled semicircular canals (labyrinth) attach to the cochlea nerves in the inner ear. They send information on balance and head position to the brain. The eustachian (auditory) tube drains fluid from the middle ear into the throat (pharynx) behind
Your brain and your spinal cord are apart of this and that also happens to be the definition of the system. With your brain, there are three sections of it. You have the hindbrain which is the part of the brain that contains the medulla, pons, and cerebellum and it is responsible for keeping our body operating. The next section is the midbrain and it is the connection between the hindbrain and forebrain. It is the center for the eyes and ears and reticular formation is the main key here.
The diencephalon, alongside the cerebrum make up the two major divisions of the forebrain. The main structures of the diencephalon include the hypothalamus, thalamus, epithalamus (including the pineal gland), and also the subthalamus. Moreover, located within the diencephalon is found the third ventricle, which is one of the four brain ventricles or cavities filled with cerebrospinal fluid. The function of the diencephalon is to relay sensory information between brain regions and control many autonomic functions of the peripheral nervous system. Furthermore, it connects structures of the endocrine system with the nervous system and works in together with limbic system structures so as to generate and manage emotions and memories.
Information conveyed through the nervous system moves along networks of cells called neurons. These neurons can only send information one way. Those transmitting to the brain are sensory neurons; those that transmit from the brain are known as motor neurons. The nervous system can suffer from a number of afflictions, including cancer (e.g., brain tumors). Other problems include multiple sclerosis, in which damaged nerves prevent signals from traveling along them, and meningitis, which causes an inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
By looking at the back of the skull and analyzing the morphology of the occipital and nuchal region the shape of occipital and nuchal region can be determined. When determining canine size and diastema, one should analyze and compare the canine to other teeth and the space between the canine and the premolars. The chin or mandibular symphysis can be analyzed by looking at the profile of the mandibule. The shape of dental arcade can be determined by looking at the skull from a ventral view and analyzing the shape that the upper teeth generate. The dentition can be determined by analyzing the size of the overall teeth with the size of the overall facial size.
INTRODUCTION Approximately 36 million individuals have Alzheimer’s disease (AD) worldwide which is the common cause of dementia in the range of higher ages (Alzheimers.net, 2014). About 5% to 8% of people aged above 65, 15% to 20% of people aged above 75 and 25% to 50% of those aged above 85 are affected by Alzheimer’s disease (Duthey, 2013). Alzheimer’s disease is an irreversibly progressive disease of the brain characterised by gradual loss of memory, change in personality and a decline in cognitive functions such as language, perception and reasoning. An individual with Alzheimer’s disease would lose all mental and memory abilities in later stages (National Institute of Aging, 2011). It is believed that Alzheimer’s disease is caused by the
Cerebellum is a complex structure of neurons located at the base of structure in the posterior fossa. It lies back to the occipital lobe of the brain and dorsal to the brainstem, at the level of the pons and the medulla. The cerebellum is separated from the brain stem by the fourth ventricle. It is also connected to the brainstem by three branches: 1. superior cerebellar branch 2. medial cerebellar branch 3. inferior cerebellar branch Cerebellum functions as the motor brain and it is important for many functions ex: maintenance of balance, to control the posture, gait stability, it also helps in the coordination of voluntary movement, and in the motor learning. So the cerebellum has been considered as the motor structure, it is also important
Finally, the vegetative state can be a as a result of progressive brain damage. This is a situation where the brain gets damaged gradually as a result of diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s disease or a brain tumour and eventually leads to the individual going into a vegetative state (Gosseries et al, 2011). Categories of the Vegetative stage There are two categories of the vegetative state depending on the length that the patient has been in the state. The two categories are the following: i. Continuing/ persistent vegetative