The synovial joints between the superior and inferior articular processes on adjacent vertebrae are termed the facet joints (also known as zygapophysial joints or Z-joints ). They permit simple gliding movements. The movement of the lumbar spine is largely confined to flexion and extension with a minor degree of rotation (see the image below). The region between the superior articular process and the lamina is the pars interarticularis. A spondylolysis occurs if ossification of the pars interarticularis fails to occur.
A potential space between the Scarpa’s fascia and the deep fascia of the anterior abdominal wall allows for the extension of perineal infection into the anterior abdominal wall. The Scarpa and Camper fascia coalesce and attach to the clavicles superiorly and limit further cephalad extension of any infection that may have stated in the perineum.The Colles fascia is attached to the pubic arch and the base of the perineal membrane and is continuous with the superficial Dartos fascia of the scrotum. This perineal membrane is also called the inferior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm and together with Colles fascia, it defines the superficial perineal
4.9) and represent the portion of the vein at the optic disc as it exits the eye (I), the intra-neural portion (II), the region through the nerve sheath where it crosses the subarachnoid space (III) and the extra-neural portion where the central retinal vein traverses outside the nerve to join the ophthalmic vein (IV), respectively. In the portion of the vein towards the rear of the eye (compartment I), the elastic wall is externally surrounded by vitreous humour at the IOP, while in the portion of the vein passing through the nerve sheath (compartment III), the elastic wall is externally surrounded by CSF at the ICP. Coupling between the IOP and ICP dictates the onset of the RVP. Other more sophisticated models for the elastic response of the vein are available, including for example its bending stiffness, but this study focuses on the simplest possible model. In compartment II the retinal vein is assumed to pass down the center of the optic nerve and so is unsheathed by nerve and connective tissue; therefore the vein wall can be assumed rigid.
• Pars Plicata: The anterior portion of the ciliary body, have a large surface area and responsible for ciliary processes. • Pars Plana: The posterior portion of the ciliary body, flat, has a pigmented inner surface and continues to the choroid. The ciliary body is composed of muscle, vessels and epithelium. The Ciliary epithelium is a double layer of cells covering the surface of the ciliary body, and has two layers: 1- An inner, Non-pigmented ciliary epithelium: represents the continuation of the retina, comes in contact with aqueous humor in the posterior chamber, the tips or crests of the non-pigmented ciliary epithelia are believed to be the sites of the active secretion of aqueous humor. 2- An external, pigmented ciliary epithelium: comes in contact with the ciliary process stroma.
Introduction: ¬Periodontium accredit to the specialized tissues that surround and support the teeth, and maintains them in the maxillary and mandibular bones. Periodontium is the anatomic assemblage of tissue, investing and supporting the tooth. The word comes from the Greek terms peri-, means "around" and -odons, means "tooth. "1 In actual sense it means that which is "around the tooth". It provides the abutment all-important to advance teeth in function.
The iliac segment extends from the iliac crest superiorly to just above the acetabular margin. Its main features are the anterior pillar, ASIS and Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine (AIIS), which is very close to the superior margin of the acetabulum. The acetabular segment forms the anterior articular surface of the acetabulum, part of the anterior wall of the acetabulum, and the anterior portion of the quadrilateral plate of the acetabulum. The pubic segment constitutes the anteriormost, and slimmest portion of the anterior column, and consists of the superior pubic ramus forming the roof to the obturator foramen. The iliopectineal line is a fundamental structure of the anterior column providing support to the anterio-superior aspect of the acetabulum and is the main guide for evaluating the continuity of the anterior column.
The transverse process is large and anterior tubercle is absent. Foramen transversarium is relatively small or absent. Structure of typical vertebra (C3 to C7): They have similar anatomical findings. The anterior components of the typical cervical vertebra are: I. The body: It is small and is the major supportive portion of the vertebra.
If they continue to grow, the patient may have associated sinusitis, bloodstained nasal discharge, nasal obstruction, or facial pain. -Radiographic Features: Antroliths occur within the maxillary sinus and thus are positioned above the fl oor of the maxillary antrum in either periapical or panoramic radiographs Antroliths have a well-defined periphery and may have a smooth or irregular shape. The internal aspect may vary in density from a barely perceptible radiopacity to an extremely radiopaque structure.The internal density may be homogenous or heterogeneous, and in some instances alternating layers of radiolucency and radiopacity in the form of laminations may be seen. a) b) a)The alternating circular radiopaque and radiolucent pattern of an antrolith is seen on a panoramic image superimposed over the posterior wall of the right maxillary sinus. b)The coronal multidirectional tomographic image confirms the location of the antrolith within the sinus and, furthermore, shows the antrolith not to be attached to the adjacent sinus
Section A – Part II Cardiac cycle or heartbeat Blood enters and fills both atriums at the same time. When full the pressure causes the tricuspid and bicuspid valves to open and flows into the ventricles. Contraction (systole) of each atrium now forces any remaining blood into the ventricles. The ventricles now contract (systole) and atriums relax (diastole). The pressure closes the tricuspid and bicuspid valves (causes the first sound of the heart beat).