It inserts in the linea alba, by an aponeurosis that fuses with the weakly developed dorsal leaf of the aponeurosis of the internal oblique to form the dorsal wall of the sheath of the rectus abdominis. The fibers are directed downward and slightly backward (Bensley and Craigie, 1948). The remaining internal portion of the wall is a smooth serous membrane forming the parietal peritoneum (peritonaeum parietale) (Bensley and Craigie,
Each complete heartbeat consists of three phases: atrial systole, ventricular systole, and diastole. The cardiac cycle causes the heart to alternate between a contraction and a relaxation approximately 72 times per minute, ie the cardiac cycle lasts about 0.8 seconds.
A bundle branch block anatomy involves the heart, but specifically the electrical nodes of the heart and the chambers of the heart. The electrical nodes of the body act as a pacemaker to help the heart correctly beat. The sinoatrial node (SA node) will send impulses to help the heart to contract. This impulse is sent to the upper chamber of the heart and then passes through the atrioventricular node (AV node). This impulse is sent through a pathway
Over the years, the cardiac catheterization has become essential in the evaluation and treatment of cardiac disease, cardiac catheterization indication have modified from a predominantly low risk profile of patients to include complex coronary lesions and high risk clinical conditions, including acute coronary syndromes(ACS), Considering the significant changes in the profiles of patients undergoing cardiac catheterization procedures. Moreover, the complication rates of the procedure can be anticipated to show comparable changes. Most of the studies reported that, complication rates of cardiac catheterization have been restricted largely to the practice prevalent several years earlier in recent times; the scenario of cardiac catheterization
COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF AORTIC ARCHES IN VERTEBRATES DEFINITION: Aortic arches are also called as pharyngeal arteries. They are vascular structures that emerge from the ventricle of the heart. There are 6 pairs of these arches in embryonic stages which give rise to several major arteries later. They arise from the aortic sac and are present on the ventral and dorsal aorta.
The anterior and lateral walls of the trachea are made of cartilage and the posterior wall is made up of elastic ligament. The trachea is circular and is covered with columnar epithelium. The air then passes through the two main bronchi supplied to each lung and then on into the bronchioles ending up in the small alveoli which are little sacs. Gas exchange takes place by a process called diffusion which is when the gases move from a high concentration to a low concentration. Diffusion takes place through the alveoli and the blood.
In this area the inferior vena relates receives liver and the hepatic veins. The diaphragmatic surface is the falciform ligament, which extends up to the umbilical area. On the free edge runs the round ligament of the liver (remnants of the embryonic umbilical vein). The rest of the umbilical vein join the periumbilical subcutaneous veins radiating from the umbilicus, which drain into the external iliac vein and inferior vena finally.
CARDDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS Anatomy and physiology Vein is an elastic blood vessel that transports blood from all part of the body to the heart. Vein have four main types, which is pulmonary, systemic, superficial and deep vein. Deep vein located deep within muscle tissue and typically located near the corresponding artery with a same name.
It is made up of simple columnar epithelium tissue and exocrine cells. Submucosa: composed of loose connective tissue, with larger blood vessels, lymphatic, nerves and can contain mucous secreting glands Muscularispropria: composed of two smooth muscles; the inner which is segmentation and the outer which is peristalsis which allow movement of food through the gut Adventia or serosa: outermost layer composed of loose connective tissue covered by the visceral peritoneum. Contains blood vessels, lymphatics and
Esophagus The esophagus is a muscular tube about 25 cm (10 inches) long and pierces the diaphragm on its way to the stomach (Fig. 6-78). It is the passageway between the pharynx and the stomach. “Each end of the esophagus is encircled by muscular sphincters that act as valves to regulate passage of material. The upper esophageal sphincter in the cervical part of the esophagus helps prevent air entering the esophagus during