The long bone is that it allows movement , particularly in the limbs eg the femur (thigh bone) tibia and fibula (lower leg bones) humerus (upper arm bone), the radius and the ulna (lower arm). Metacarpals (hand bones) metersals (foot bone) and phalanges (finger and toe bone) Functions of the skeleton The skeleton is the framework of the body; it supports the softer tissue and provides point of attachment for most skeletal muscles. The skeleton provides mechanical protection for many of the body’s internal organs, redusing risk of injury to them. Skeletal bones are attached to the muscle contract they cause bone to move, packed with over 200 bones, skeletons protect, shape support and move our bodies as well as producing red blood cells in the bone
The plantar interossei made with unipennate morphology and dorsal interossei made with bipennate. • There are three plantar interossei muscles in the foot. These muscles adduct digits three to five and help to move the metatarsophalangeal joints. • Four dorsal interossei muscles are found in the foot. And they locate between the metatarsal.
The forearm is a complex anatomical structure between the elbow and the wrist that serves an important function of the upper extremity. The forearm consists of two parallel bones, the radius and the ulna. It forms a functional unit that can be considered both as an axis and a non synovial joint (). This “joint” can be best understood in term of two “condyles”, the distal radio-ulnar joint (DRUJ) and the proximal radioulnar joint (PRUJ) (). The capsule of the elbow joint and the annular ligament stabilize the bones proximally.
The hip joint is the attachment between the hind limb and the axial skeleton. The pelvis girdle consists of two identical hipbones that ventrally meet at the pelvic symphysis. Dorsally they articulate with the sacrum. Each hipbone consists of the ilium, pubis and ischium that have different ossification centers. In adults, these bones are completely fused and their bodies form the cavity for the articulation with the femur, the acetabulum (8).
*The pelvic girdle is a duplex structure like pectoral girdle which is made up of three cartilage bones in each half which are known as ossa innominata. *Each os innominatum is formed by three bones *These cartilage bones are – ilium, ischium and pubic. *Dermal bones are lacking in pelvic girdle. *The pelvic girdle has a depression (concavity) at the junction of the three bones which is known as acetabulum, into which the head of femur of the hind limb articulates.
It gives wide exposure of coracoid process for the study of anatomical structures of the region, bones density as well as given clue to properly access this bone for researches relates to anthropometric studies. In this short modified method, the skin was reflected laterally and the fat, fascia removed, the pectorals major and deltoid muscles are clearly defined, which correlated with some previous published reports on dissection procedures of pectoral region (Romanes, 1986; Tank 2008), unlike the previously published techniques, where the pectorals major and pectorals minor muscles were dissected to expose the coracoid process (Romanes, 1986; Tank 2008). Our alternative approach seems to be consistent with the deltopectoral approach used in shoulder surgery with which the coracoid process can easily be approach once the deltopectoral groove with cephalic vein was identified, and the pectorals major and the deltoid was retracted upward and as well as laterally to access the coracoid process (Webb and Funk, 2006). In contrast, this new approach method to the coracoid process can easily be undertaken and the clavicular origin of the deltoid muscle could be dissected with minor injuries to enable the identification of the coracoid
The transverse process is large and anterior tubercle is absent. Foramen transversarium is relatively small or absent. Structure of typical vertebra (C3 to C7): They have similar anatomical findings. The anterior components of the typical cervical vertebra are: I. The body: It is small and is the major supportive portion of the vertebra.
Muscle is a long bundle of flesh which is attached to the bones at both ends by tendons. Epimysium known as tough tissue which protect outer layer of muscle. Inside the epimysium are fascicles or bundles of muscle fiber cells. The fascicles are surround by a layer of perimysium tissue which act as connective tissue. The individual muscle fiber is covered with endomysium
It is also noted that where two bones meet is called a joint. There are many types of joints that allow for the body to move in different ways, notable ones: hinge, ball and socket, pivot and some in the skull. The materials used was a virtual skeleton, a cursor, a box, bones, and brains.
Synergist muscles also help to create the movement. In the bicep curl the synergist muscles are the brachioradialis and brachialis which assist the biceps to create the movement and stabilise the elbow joint Type of contraction Concentric Contraction From the Sport and PE book by Kevin Wesson, Nesta Wiggins-James, Graham Thompson and Sue Hartigan I have gained some extra information on concentric contraction. Within the book it explains that this type of contraction involves the muscle shortening while contracting. A main example of this would be that this occurs during the upward phase of a bicep curl in the tricep. Eccentric Contraction An eccentric muscle contraction is a type of muscle activation that increases tension on a muscle as it lengthens.
This condition occurs when the top (head) of the fibula separates from the tibia. This type of dislocation happens when a great deal of force is applied to a bent knee. There are four types of proximal tibiofibular joint dislocation: • Type I is an incomplete dislocation (subluxation). • Type II is dislocation of the tibia in a forward and outward direction. This is the most common type.
The zygomatic flare can be examined by evaluating how wide is the zygomatic bone. The cranium size can be analyzed by comparing the size of the overall cranium with the size of the overall face. The cranium shape can be determined by analyzing the height and width of the overall skull. The degree of prognathism can be examined by looking at the profile of the skull and determined how much the face projects outward. By looking at the back of the skull and analyzing the morphology of the occipital and nuchal region the shape of occipital and nuchal region can be determined.