Hinduism was the first to start here in India. According to Document A, Hindu people believed in many gods and they believed in the process of reincarnation. There was also a caste system in Hinduism. This system separated the people into groups where they had different jobs. Also they believed in karma and dharma.
According to Hinduism, the meaning of life is to achieve Dharma, Artha, Kama, and Moksha. Dharma means to act virtuously and righteously. It also means to act morally and ethically in your life. However, since Hindus believe that they are born in debt to the Gods and other human beings, dharma calls for Hindus to repay this debt. The five different debts are: debt to the Gods, debt to parents and teachers, debt to guests, debt to other human beings, and debt to all other living things.
The challenges Buddhism faced as it arrived in China were mainly linguistic challenges, different philosophical context, diverse conceptions of the ideal perfect being, and the core differences in social values. In order to overcome these challenges, there were translations made, and efforts put into searching for links between Buddhist and Chinese beliefs at that time. Moreover, there were cultural differences between the North and the South, which lead to a different process of Buddhism’s arrival within China. The first challenge Buddhism faced was the language barrier. Buddhism was based on Sanskrit, so it was necessary to translate the teachings and dialogues from Sanskrit to Chinese.
The first words after hearing the term “caste system” that come to mind may be words such as slaves, kings and common people. There is so much more depth that revolves around this phrase. The caste system of India is made up of five classes. At the top are the Brahmins or those of families that have worked as priests and teachers. Second are Kshatriyas consisting of warriors and kings.
This was because it was believed that they were created by the sages of antiquity, in accordance with the nature of people and the cosmic order of all things. The members of the society were required to comply with it, that is, to behave properly, adequately to the situation. The execution of the Liji (in any sense of the term) was essential for the ancient Chinese: It balances the world and fills it with harmony - that to which all things must tend. Confucius said that without Liji public order is impossible, and hence there cannot be well-being or prosperity in the country. Li establishes the order of things, in its absence the difference between monarch and subjects, upper and lower classes, would not be
China and Egypt were both early civilizations that developed long ago and on different continents. In order to be classified as a civilization certain things were needed like a surplus of food, a division of labor, and the building of cities. Even though they were located far apart, many similarities and differences can be found between these two groups. China and Egypt both began near rivers. China was by the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers.
While both philosophies of Confucianism and Legalism were both active government policies throughout the “Golden Age” in Chinese history, the two theories have central ideas vary in the beliefs of people. Both ideals while dealing with the governing of people go about how they do it differently. In order to keep order, the practice of Legalism believes that everyone is equal under the law and should be governed with laws, on the other hand, those practicing Confucianism believe that people are inherently good and by promoting a good nature, the people will follow and keep the order on their own. According to the Confucian author, “If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame.
One of them is that both have scribes in the middle class that recorded laws and taxes to help the ruler. They also have Nobles and priests in the upper class to help the pharaoh govern Egypt. Both have slaves at the bottom that owed something or were prisoners of war. Therefore, these two great civilizations have many similarities in social class These great civilizations also
Many people have mistaken Confucianism as a religion. However, it is a system of belief, a philosophy. This belief emphasizes on respect and harmony of relationships. Moreover, it pushed for a well-ordered society by accentuating human relationships, a righteous leader and a good education. Confucius, a philosopher and a teacher, founded Confucianism.
There were many ancient civilizations that conveyed their religious beliefs, spirituality, and worldviews through their architecture, decorations, and other artistic mediums. The three cultures that stand out the most in regards to their beliefs being conveyed through architecture and art are Cahokia, Nubia, and India. Cahokia was a Mississippian civilization located in what is modern day North America. One of the unique cultural aspects within their government, known as the chiefdom, was the way in which the ruler of Cahokia was treated in regards to their gods. In a chiefdom, the ruler is hereditary and the chiefdom is based on a gift-giving and communal culture.
India put a caste system into effect, judging the appropriate social status of an individual based on their skin tone and familial background. Similar to India, China also set a class system in place, but their version relied on the literacy and intellect of an individual to determine their role in the society. Unfortunately, these class systems did not always please the ones who were on the lower end of the social spectrum and this discontent eventually led to internal strife, weakening the society as a whole. Due to the poor conditions the lower tier were kept at they soon lost love for the government and began to revolt, believing a new government would give them more favorable social
They believed that because people are instinctively selfish, that people would have a hard time coexisting in a land where all people were supposed to be treated equal. Though the government was created to aid the people, it was also established to teach the people how to “live properly”. The fact that the constitution was written in the mindset that people needed to be, in a sense, controlled is was and remains a controversial topic. Many view the constitution’s favor for the rich, white, and male property owners was not so much of an “easier way to unify a nation” but more of a list of who it was going to be more desireable to govern. These facts aside, in order to instill equality to a newlywed nation, the people were given some basic human rights and the power to choose who was going to represent them in order to still make sure that the people were still the basis of the new government while still having control over them.
In order to understand the similarities of how order was in the Han Dynasty and Roman Empire from 300 BCE to 300 CE, the beginnings of each empire should be understood. Before the Han Dynasty rose, the Qin Dynasty, which overtaxed their citizens and regulated their laws by censoring education (burning books). The Roman Empire started out as a city-state which began to conquer neighboring regions, such as Italy, and expanded through warfare. However, from 300 BCE to 300 CE, the Han Dynasty and Roman Empire both created order in society by having an agrarian economy, ideologies, and establishing an authority that shaped social structures. The first similarity of how the Romans and the Han both created order in society, from 300 BCE to 300 CE, was their agrarian economy.
Religions of the Han and Yuan Dynasties The Religion of the Han and Yuan Dynasties were Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism. The religions of these dynasties affected the government and society greatly. During the Han Dynasty the major religion was Confucianism. Buddhism and Daoism were the main religions in the Yuan Dynasty. Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism all affected the Chinese government.