Notable monarchies in Greek city-states were those of Epeiros and Macedonia, where the king shared power with the assembly. Sparta was famous for its system of two (2) kings at a time and they were kept in check by ephors. (Magistrates). ( Cartwright M. 2013). In the beginning of 2.000 BC Mycenaeans ruled Greece and by 1,200 B.C., his government collapsed,
It broke up the powerful influence aristocrats had over the system (Brand, n.d.). Cleisthenes reorganized the Boule or “legislative council” (Brand, n.d.). Chosen 500 councilors came from each tribe in every part of Attica (Brand, n.d.). Cleisthenes had laid the foundation for democracy by allowing every man to vote (Brand, n.d.). In Persian wars, led by Sparta, not only the armies of Athens and Sparta, but also other city-states as Greek allies fought with Persian army many times (Brand, n.d.).
Military commanders also held public office in some city-states as In Athens, there was a board of ten elected generals, called “ Strategoi” who could influence the agenda of the assembly. The Athenian form of electing a government was called Limited Democracy while the Spartan form was called oligarchy" but it had elements of monarchy, democracy and aristocracy. Sparta has had two rulers in recent times, who ruled until they died. There was many similarities and differences between the 2
He ruled from 1792 B.C. to 1750 B.C. The Hammurabi Code had a total of 282 laws. There were many harsh punishments whenever you committed a crime during his reign, such as getting your hands, limbs, eye, and breast removed. Hammurabi was born in Babylon which is now modern day Iraq, his father was a king with a lot of power before him.
All causes were logical, Sparta destroyed Athens land, and then Athens surrounded to Sparta. Half of Greek population joined the Persian army. They were known as mercenaries of the war. Second Athens collapse was not the worst thing for Athenian citizens. The war brought the plague in the Athens and half of Athenian population dead because of this
While some, like Plato in his The Republic, thought it weak to give government into the hands of the common people, Pericles countered this argument with a compelling argument of greatness. By putting government into the hands of the people, the people are united and more devoted to their country. Democracy bonds the people together in a way that no other government can understand. Pericles confidently states, “Athenians advance unsupported into the territory of a neighbor, and fighting upon a foreign soil usually vanquish with ease men who are defending their homes.” This, Pericles claims, is the might of democracy; the strength and excellence of many people rather than just that of a
Castoriadis was a greek-french philosopher who believed that the true version of democratic society is one in which Autonomy is practiced. This refers to the idea of removing the political hierarchy and making our own rules and institutions that we all agreed upon. For this is what he considers a true democracy. In present day he believes that western civilizations or places like America reside in a liberal oligarchy. A liberal oligarchy is referred to as an system that is governed by a few people.
The Roman Empire lasted about 500 years from about 47 BC to AD 476. It started in Italy and eventually extended throughout Europe, western Asia, and northern Africa. Julius Caesar became dictator for life and was assassinated by the senate, however this began the transfer from a republic to an empire. The Roman Empire grew over time, getting bigger. Although it thrived, it fell around 476 C.E because of major issues.
During the time period between 800 BCE and 300 BCE, sometimes called the Classical Period, Greece endured a plethora of cultural and political changes caused by the wars and conflicts in which Greece was involved in around the world. One change was the development of Greece into the first democracy around the year 500 BCE, proven by a variety of speeches and jury trials and their outcomes from that time period, and the adaptation of the Phoenician alphabet to develop a writing system in the 8th century BCE, as seen in many records of writing starting in this time period. Apart from all the changes endured by Greece in that time period, there were also some continuities like the continued use of slavery all throughout the empire until the year 1822, which assisted in developing the domestic lifestyle of Greece today.
Sparta, the societal anomaly of ancient Greece evolved in the agriculturally fertile southern Peloponnese territory of Laconia. Originally a small group of village settlements, Sparta is the result of occupation through conquest during the tenth century B.C. The Dorians, a group of northern tribesmen and very fierce invaders were able to overpower the indigenous settlers thus founding the original settlements of Sparta. Sparta is the primary Polis of Laconia and, along with Athens itself the largest Polis and capitol of Greece were the two preeminent Greek powers each exerting great political and military influence between 550 and 350 B.C. As per the dominating Greek reverence and sovereignty toward the idea of the Poleis Athens and Sparta