Cytotoxic edema is most commonly characterized by the swelling of neurons, glia and constriction of extracellular space. Cytotoxic causes of edema include: traumatic brain injury, encephalitis, meningitis, toxic ingestions and hypoxic ischemic brain injury. The final
The leak or rupture may be caused by conditions that affect the blood vessels. Examples include uncontrolled hypertension, aneurysms, and over treatment with anticoagulants. Types of hemorrhagic strokes are intracerebral stroke and subarachnoid stroke. Intracerebral is when a blood vessel in the brain bursts and spills into the surrounding brain tissue. This results in the damage of brain cells and including the cells beyond the spill which then, aren’t able receive enough blood.
The aneurysm that Loeys and Marfan contains is Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm. Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm is an abnormal bulging or ballooning of the portion of the aorta the passes through the chest. The most common cause is atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries(AHA) Risk factors may include, aging, genetic conditions such as Marfan and Loeys-Dietz Syndrome, Inflammation of the aorta, injury from falls or other trauma, and or, Syphilis. A patient with Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm may not have or experience any symptoms until it begins to leak blood into the nearby tissue or expand. There are many symptoms such as hoarseness, swallowing problems, swelling in neck, chest or upper back pains, and many more to include.
Steven Moore 3/12/2016 Atrial/Ventricular Septal Defect Repair Surgical Procedure Task An atrioventricular septal defect is a condition that results in a defect located in the middle of the heart. The condition takes place when a hole forms between the heart 's atrium and ventricular chambers. This defect causes complications and makes it difficult for the mitral valve to regulate blood flow in the heart. The deregulation of blood flow affects the lungs by allowing extra blood to flow into the organs. The heart then has to overwork itself in order to pump this extra blood out of the lungs and will cause the heart muscle to enlarge, leading to high blood pressure and even heart failure if left untreated.
ARDS is commonly known as acute respiratory distress syndrome. This life-threatening condition was first seen in the 1960s when physicians noticed that twelve people who developed sudden breathing problems and rapid lung failure had similar patches on their lungs. ARDS starts as inflammation, in which then leads to the failure of gas exchanges of the lungs and blood. The blood starts to be deprived of oxygen, which leads to multiple organ failure. The damaged and inflamed small blood vessels will automatically cause people to be admitted to the ICU where there is no specific treatment for ARDS.
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Also known as HCM, Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy is a cardiac disease that causes the ventricles of the heart to become abnormally thick and stiff. When the ventricles become thick and stiff, it causes them to not be able to pump enough blood, which can cause a blood as well as oxygen deprivation to the rest of the body. HCM can be genetically inherited as well as diseases like diabetes and thyroid diseases can make the odds of HCM contraction higher. HCM can cause sudden death as a result of fatal ventricular arrhythmias. In 1958, the first contemporary account of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy was made by Dr. Robert Donald Teare, a pathologist at St. George’s hospital in London.
Multiple concussions and swelling can cause progressive cognitive decline which is like dementia (Brain Facts). According to author, Lauren Tarshis, “Some symptoms of a concussion are immediate, like loss of consciousness. But often signs are more subtle and don't show up until hours or days after the injury which can be forgetfulness, confusion, headaches, balance problems or dizziness, light or noise sensitivity, sluggishness or fogginess, irritability or emotional symptoms, concentration or memory problems and blurred vision.” So if an athlete was to get a concussion they might not even know right away and put themselves at risk by continuing to play. As seen with Zack, second impact syndrome could be fatal and ruin your life. Concussions are not rare either.
If the headache is present, over the counter medication it is usually sufficient to eliminate pain. When a more severe or extensive brain damage occurs, the injury is considered a head injury or severe brain. Lesions in the brain can have a variety of causes, such as trauma to the head from a fall, accident and assault. Symptoms vary and may include an altered level of consciousness, nausea and vomiting. Seizures may also occur.
Untreated AD can lead to a stroke, heart attack, or seizure. What are the causes? This condition is caused by an overactive autonomic nervous system. Any injury, irritation, or infection below the level of your spinal cord injury may then trigger AD. Triggers include: Tight shoes or tight clothing Cuts or bruises Ingrown toenail Burns Skin pressure ulcers Appendicitis Constipation Full bladder Kidney stones Gall stones Full stomach Urinary tract infection
This has also been noted in non-benzodiazapine sedatives that affect the same group of receptors, such as ambien (Bulach R, Myles PS, Russnak M 2004). The other cause is when a traumatic brain injury is inflicted resulting in damage to the hippocampus or adjoining cortices. Sometimes It also may be a result of shock or an emotional disorder. Although it is rare illness can also be the origin of anterograde amnesia if it causes encephalitis (inflammation of brain tissue.) An example of illness that can result in anterograde amnesia is herpes encephalitis.