Queer theory was developed by Judith Butler in her post-modern feminist text, “Gender Trouble: feminism and the subversion of identity” (Horitar, 2015). She discussed the role that gender and sexual orientation play in the way in which society uses this concepts in order to place individuals in a specific category on the basis on how they behave (Guantlett, 1998; Horitar, 2015). This theory examines the diverse ways in which current beliefs serves to reintegrate societal anticipations of gender identity, appearance and sexuality, it also offers a negotiation for the fragmentation of constructed gender categories (Horitar, 2015). According to Western society, sex defines your particular gender (feminine or masculine) which in turn defines your true identity, for example a biological female is considered to be a women who is anticipated, by their society, to be more sensitive and nurturing than a man and who needs a sensual relationship with the opposite sex (Horitar, 2015). This notion was rejected by Butler because according to her gender should be regarded as a performance and not as a category (Guantlett, 1998; Horitar, 2015).
This paper will analyse to what extent the women in Nwapa's Efuru in general and Efuru specifically are able to make their own decisions and which limitations there are to their freedom of choice. It will explore the role of gender in the decision-making process as gender is among the main influences of decision-making in the novel. the manner in which those decisions are made. It will discuss how far the decision making abilities of women are restricted by their gender i.e. the societal limitations set to them because of their gender and which fields they wield power in.
However, with the recent development of Queer Theory, the body and the complex relationship between sex and gender began to progressively receive special attention. In this context, the notion of sexuality and gender has been destabilized against the notion of self and what is considered to be natural. Psychologists like Sigmund Freud began to question this idea in the early XX century. Freud not only challenged the nature of homosexuality (inversion) but also the nature of heterosexuality. Then, this idea of nature would be changed by interpretations of particular historical moments and relationships of power.
1); as well as aspects of categorizing concepts with reference to factors in social psychology. For example, the article titled, ‘Prototype Theory: An Alternative Concept Theory for Categorizing Sex and Gender?’ seek to explore the prototype theory to determine whether it captures the fluidity of gender and is able to accommodate transgender and queer identities. The article clearly defined the features of the category labelled ‘woman’ on the basis of sex and gender and applied the prototype theory to these concepts as it relates to the hierarchal levels of categorization. According to Fox (2011), utilizing the prototype theory as a theoretical framework for the concepts of sex and gender provides structural flexibility and inclusiveness (Fox, 2011). In addition, the “family resemblance” stabilizes both concepts enough to accommodate the variations and overlapping idealized features such that the author concluded that the prototype theory can capture the fluidity of gender and thus is able to explain why transgender and queer identities are now incorporated in the concept of gender.
Gender Studies is an interdisciplinary field that focuses on the multifaceted interaction of gender with other identity markers for example race, ethnicity, sexuality, nation, and religion. Femininity and masculinity are such a basic form of social organization that the operation often passes unnoticed. Feminist scholarship shows that traditional categories used for social analysis and their associated interpretive approaches frequently reinforce gender hierarchies and inequalities Interdisciplinary study came forth in reaction to the partial answers to social problems provided by the disciplines. This looks at concepts of gender and power, gender and the body, and gender and knowledge through a sequence of topics such as freedom and liberty, social movements, work with leisure, politics of social justice in addition to sexual violence. We are surrounded by gender tradition from the time we are young.
The question about whether or not an individual’s identity is innate or acquired, has always been a debatable issue. Some people argue that gender identity is a result of the social context they live in, while others believe a person is born into it. Gender identity is a “person 's subjective sense of themselves as masculine or feminine and is exhibited by the degree to which they act upon their gender roles” (Whalen & Maurer-Starks, 2008). However, based on the current society people live in, it is more likely that an individual’s identity, such as their sexuality, education, and social status are acquired as a result of the social context they live in. Some argue that nurture affects an individual’s sexuality, or sexual preference, while others believe it is nature.
Characters in the story portray these issues through their personalities and distinct features. The author’s unique style, tone and diction throughout the story reveals a connection between her emotions about these themes within the story. Du Maurier also uses descriptions that symbolize her common idea within the story. This infraction of gender roles sparks conflicts between those who have expectations within the classifications of status of both men and women. Auba Llompart Pons, objects the theme of gender roles connecting to the classification of status within Daphne
Personality defines a person. Due to personality humans are able to differentiate themselves among others. It’s an important concept and its origin should be questioned. Is personality an inborn concept or are humans predisposed to factors that form and shape their personality? In "Sex and Temperament," Margaret Mead explores this concept.
One of the theoretical understandings that has come from the works of second wave feminists is the idea that gender and sexuality are both performative. If that framework is used in real life, what are the applications of the idea of performativity in literature? Among other things, what one chooses to write and how they choose to write it are ways that these identities can be performed. For those writing in times of social upheaval, it can be particularly important to ground their identities, however they see and define them, so that their positions cannot be as easily questioned. In the case of T.S.
ICESI UNIVERSITY LANGUAGE AND CULTURE PROFESSOR: RAMÓN VERSAGE JUAN DAVID CABALLERO GENDER AND LANGUAGE: THOUGH PIECE It is remarkable how gendered language affects perceptions in our society. This phenomenon has been a research topic for many years. Sociolinguistics have shown interest in describing the differences in language use between women and men, and studies of the cultural roles ascribed to gender. This paper gender of language of Holmes and Meyerhoff aims at explaining the distinction between language and gender and how language supports, enforces, and maintains attitudes about gender in general and women in particular. Before starting off, it is of utmost importance to make a distinction between gender and sex to gain a better