They exert a wide range of functions in neuronal/glial proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, as well as in maintaining the membrane permeability to ions and in the stabilization of synaptic transporters and receptors, the latest processes relevant to the generation and propagation of the nervous impulse and synaptic transmission.20,39,40 Moreover, cell and animal models underscore the key function of sphingolipids in the neurite growth and myelination of the cerebellum and forebrain, among other brain regions.41,42 Deficiency of ceramide synthase-2 that generates sphingolipids with C22-C24 fatty acyl chains results in 50% loss of compacted myelin and 80% loss of CNS myelin basic protein.42 Similarly, a 60% reduction of myelin-associated glycoprotein in the cerebellum and forebrain characterizes mice deficient in ceramide synthase-1, the enzyme that generates C18:0 sphingolipids.41 Interestingly, mice deficient of ceramide synthase -6, which generates C16:0 sphingolipids, as well as mice deficient of GM3 synthase that is responsible for one of the first steps in the production of gangliosides, both present hyperactive behavior and have been postulated as suitable animal models for
Epithelial cell migrating across wound usually move along the basal lamina or fibrin deposits, this phenomenon is called contact guidance and is an important factor in epithelial migration. Epithelial migration is followed by increased mitosis of epithelium. Recent evidence suggests that a water soluble heat labile substance called chalcone which is secreted at the wound site is responsible for regulation for mitosis
When beginning resistance training, there is increased activity within the motor cortex and significant changes occur to the corticospinal tracts, meaning signals from the motor cortex travel to the working muscle more efficiently. Neural adaptations of resistance training include motor unit recruitment, size principle, rate coding, motor synchronisation and neural drive (Haff and Triplett 1994).
The endocrine system is such an important system to the body because it functions the bodies use of hormones. The body uses many different hormones and the endocrine system regulates these. When the glands of the endocrine system secrete the hormones, the hormones are put into the bloodstream to be sent to the different parts of the body. The glands that comprise the endocrine system are the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the pineal gland which are all located in the brain, the thyroid, parathyroid, and thymus which are located in the throat, the adrenals and pancreas which are located in the body’s midsection, and the ovaries (female) and testes (male) which are located in the pelvic region. The system is so important because it regulates the body’s metabolism, growth and sexual development, digestion, heart rate, and many of the other body functions regulated by hormones.
In recent studies, it is known that angiogenic factors have a significant role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. These factors include antiangiogenic proteins, for example soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFLT-1) and soluble endoglin (sEng), and proangiogenic protein such as placental growth factor (PlGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor
Another mechanism of action is the altering of expression and phosphorylation of member of the bcl-2 family of proteins, docetaxel associate with the phosphorylation and inactivation of bcl-2 protein, members of the bcl-2 family are highly conserved proteins which regulate apoptosis. Docetaxel can display a wide spectrum of anti-cancer activity in preclinical trials. The clinical trial has shown that docetaxel is effective against hormone refractory prostate
The process of metastasis involves the cells breaking away from the main tumor via traveling through the blood or lymph nodes, and then developing in new places. Eventually, that type of cancer dominates over all functions of the organs, tissues, and organ
The molecular mechanisms of various changes in the hippocampus following sound stimulation to effect neurogenesis, learning and memory are described. Sound stimulation can also modify neural connectivity in the early postnatal life to enhance higher cognitive function or even repair the secondary damages in various neurological and psychiatric disorders. Thus, it becomes imperative to examine in detail the possible bettering effects of prenatal sound stimulation in various psychiatric disorders, such as
The regenerative capacity of tissues and organs in the body is fundamental to healthy ageing. Regeneration is dependent on the number and division rate of the proliferating (basal) cells, their genomic stability and their propensity for cell death (Shojaei, 1998; Squier and Kremer, 2001; Sarto et al., 1990; Holland , 2008). 184.108.40.206 Criteria for identifying and scoring cell types in the buccal micronucleus cytome assay The scoring criteria for the various distinct cell types and nuclear anomalies in the BMCyt assay are mainly based on those originally described by Tolbert et al (1992). These criteria classify buccal cells into categories that distinguish between normal cells and cells that are considered abnormal on the basis of nuclear and cytological features, which are indicative of DNA damage , cytokinetic failure or cell death. According to these criteria, cell types in the BMCyt assay classified