Perfusion : Perfusion is the process of a body delivering blood to a capillary bed in itsbiological tissue. The word is derived from the French verb "perfuser" meaning to "pour over or through". Tests verifying that adequate perfusion exists are a part of a patient's assessment process that are performed by medical or emergency personnel. The most common methods include evaluating a body's skin color, temperature, condition and capillary refill. Perfusionists employ artificial blood pumps to propel open-heart surgery patients' blood through their body tissue, replacing the function of the heart while the cardiac surgeon operates.
It serves as a guiding tool during stent placement and peripheral interventions. It allows the assessment of possible intra - or postoperative complications. With the aid of IVUS, disease progression and regression can be determined, cardiac transplant status can be evaluated and IVUS can be utelized in clinical research. The most common IVUS imaging is done on the coronary arteries. EUS-guided angiotherapy makes intravascular therapy possible and is done in conjunction with real time ultrasound investigation of thrombosis and hemostasis (Buthani,
In recent years, CT and MR imaging are the most widely used techniques, because of their widespread availability and their ability to produce high resolution images of normal anatomic structures and pathological tissues. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a method used to visualize pathological or other physiological alterations of living tissues and is commonly used for brain tumor imaging because of the following
Studies on computer -based breath sounds started in the literature since 1980s. Nowadays there is advancement about signal processing to detect the abnormalities and disease using computer-based breath sound auscultation. The major problem faced in studies on computerised- based lung sounds analysis is to relate the breath sounds to the disease correctly which has not been study by researcher before. Every respiratory sounds has each properties and science and technology has made breath sounds simple to improve the classification of pulmonary diseases. The pulmonary diseases have their dominant frequency range, which can detected by apply signal processing techniques (Palaniappan.R et al.
Mammography is specialized medical imaging examination that uses a low-dose x-ray system to see inside the breasts. It uses x-rays to take images of the breast from different angles. Doctors use a mammography exam, called a mammogram to look for early signs of breast cancer which helps in the early discovery and diagnosis of breast diseases. Regular mammograms are the best assessments doctors have to catch breast cancer early, sometimes up to three years before it can be felt. (ACR), 2018) .Breast screening is an effective way of detecting breast cancer, often at a very early stage, when there are no outward signs.
It is a special ultrasound technique that evaluates blood flow through a blood vessel, including the body’s major arteries and veins in the abdomen, arm, leg, neck and head. There are three types of Doppler ultrasound i.e. color Doppler, power Doppler and spectral Doppler. • Color Doppler uses a computer to convert Doppler measurements into an array of colors to show the direction and speed of blood flow through a blood vessels. • Power Doppler is a sensitive technique then the color technique and it shows more detail about blood flow.
http://www.restoresight.org. The donor tissue is inspected by slit-lamp biomicroscopy and the endothelial cell count is determined by specular microscopy. A cornea suitable for transplantation should display a noninterrupted epithelial layer, a stroma free of opacities or folds and a viable and regular endothelium with a cell density above 2000-2200 cells/mm2 (Wiffen et al., 1995). Wiffen SJ, Nelson LR, Ali AF, Bourne WM. Morphologic assessment of corneal endothelium by specular microscopy in evaluation of donor corneas for transplantation.
Performing the complete blood count gives us the exact amount of hemoglobin in the patient’s blood. The hematocrit, which is defined as the fraction of blood composed of red blood cells, is also able to be examined by performing the complete blood count test. Although the above mentioned findings are the most common use of this test, this test also allows us to gain information on the measurements of the average red blood
A post mortem was previously used by neurologist in order for them examine the human brain and its many functions. However, technology increased accessibility to brain imaging techniques, as well as non-invasive ways to examine the brain in more detail (Morton, Sandhu, & Jones, 2016). MRI and PET Scans are the two modern methods of examining the human brain. Magnetic Resonance Imaging or MRI is a modern day technique which uses detailed computer imagery to identify body structures. An MRI image produces a composite three-dimensional image; the resolution detects tiny changes of structures within the body, identifying strokes, tumours, as well as detecting bleeding and possible swelling of the brain (Galotti, 2008).
The diagnosis is based on the physical exam, chest X-ray and oxygen levels and by ruling out other diseases and conditions. 4.3.1 Imaging. A chest X-ray can reveal which parts of lungs and how much of the lungs have fluid in them and whether heart is enlarged. In addition chest x-ray demonstrate diffuse and extensive bilateral interstitial and alveolar infiltrates. Computerized tomography (CT) scan combines X-ray images taken from many different directions into cross-sectional views of internal organs.