Stress throws several brain neurotransmitter systems — such as serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine — out of balance, negatively affecting mood, appetite, sleep and libido. Some severely depressed people have permanently elevated cortisol levels, which can eventually
An organ bath experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of agonist, histamine on guinea pig ileum (GPI) and how the antagonists, mepyramine and SIPBSDrug A affect the GPI’s response (smooth muscle contractions). A GPI simulation was conducted to compare the potencies and nature of antagonists against histamine. The control Rmax and EC50 of histamine without antagonist were 16.49gms and 2.093 x 10-7M respectively. The concentration-response curves were shifted to right parallelly and EC50 increased while Rmax remained constant when mepyramine or SIPBSDrug A was added. Besides, both antagonists showed linear graphs in Schild plot, indicating that they acted as reversible competitive antagonists.
Seeking activity includes not only the search for food, drink and sex but?in times of anxiety and fear?access to safety. Denys, Zohar, and Westenberg write: "When dopamine is increased, the ability of the prefrontal cortex to suppress the affective responses generated in the amygdala is attenuated." We will discuss neurocircuitry related to obsessions, compulsions, and other symptoms more fully in Parts 2 and 3 of MyBrainNotes.com. Especially regarding PTSD, past experience is a key. Neuroscientists have found that experience shapes
In studies conducted temperature, humidity ,the length of the day and intensity of sunlight were found to influence suicidal behavior in large population-based studies. It was proposed that sunlight,through interaction with the serotonergic systems ie a nerve ending that releases and is stimulated by serotonin is of particular importance in this matter. Even short-term changes in lighting conditions can affect depression-like behaviour in rodents and lead to changes in brain monoamine transmission. Also a higher ambient temperature has already been assumed to be involved in serotoninergic neurotransmitter systems leading to impulsiveness and aggression, presumably influencing suicide.Previous studies showed that females conducted more suicides than males when temperature increased.The mental health effects due to climatic changes are gaining little attention now than before.There can be long term or short term,acute or chronic effect on an individual. Acute and chronic mental health effects include the
In order to test the results against each other, a t-test would not be sufficient for this analysis, as this method would only allow for comparing two groups. Therefore a one way Anova statistical test could be used to test the analysis of variance. By using this, the researcher would establish whether there were any statistically significant differences between the means of the three unrelated groups of placebo, calcium and Valium. Again, for the purposes of illustration, I have run a one way Anova statistical test with the additional drug data included in the table
The actual experimental errors were close to the theoretical errors. The difference between the errors was not so high. Rather it was in acceptable region. The value for percent difference was calculated using the following formula. Percent Difference =Absolute Difference Average ×100%=|E2-E1|(E2+E1)/2 ×100% Discussion Following results were obtained from the experiment.
David Sack reports research findings on how sugar affects physical and mental health. His research findings express concerns about depression, addiction, anxiety, learning and memory. His findings towards depression concluded that the fluctuation of blood sugar may contribute to mood. “Sugar suppresses activity of a hormone called BDNF that is low in individuals with depression and schizophrenia.” (Sack, 2013, p. 2) His findings on addiction concluded that there may be the same amount of addiction level as cocaine has on the brain. He found a study conducted by Yale University where, “The simple sight of a milkshake activated the same reward centers of the brain as cocaine.”(Sack, 2013, p. 2) Anxiety was also included in his research with findings that, “The standard American diet, which is full of sugar and fat, does not necessarily cause anxiety, but it does appear to worsen anxiety symptoms and impair the body’s ability to cope with stress.”(Sack, 2013, p. 2) Sack’s final analysis on effects of sugar on the body concluded that learning and memory are affected by the consumption of too much sugar.
Monoamines, serotonin and glutamate levels regulate neurogenesis. The former two stimulates neurogenesis (Chaouloff, 1989 and Brezun et al, 1999) and the latter inhibits neurogenesis (Gould et al, 1994). Acetylcholine, dopamine and norepinephrine increase the proliferation of the precursor cells (Cooper-kuhn et al, 2004, Mohapel et al, 2005). GABA plays a role in the survival (Van der Borght et al, 2005) and differentiation of the proliferated neurons (Ge et al, 2006). Substance P and opioids decrease neurogenesis, where they mainly affect the proliferation and not survival of the newly differentiated neurons (Morcuende et al, 2004 and Harburg GC et al,
The t-statistics The t test assesses the statistical significance of the difference between two independent sample means. To determine whether the two sample means are viewed differently, a t- statistics is calculated. The t-statistics is the ratio of the difference between the sample means to their standard error. The standard error is an estimate of the difference between means to be expected because of sampling error, rather than real differences between means. If the t-value is sufficiently large, then statistically it can be said that the difference is not due to sampling variability, but represents a true difference.