‘A sketch of the modern Australian Federation’ in Appleby, G., Aroney, N. and John, T (ed. ), The future of Australian federalism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Craven, G., Edwardes, C., McTaggart, D., Stockdale, A., Westacott, J. and Bannon, J. (2015).
This article is intended to be a brief overview of the key changes and new concepts which came into force on 1 January 2011, with the enactment of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth), replacing the Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cth) ( 'the TPA '). History of the Australian Consumer Law The Trade Practices Amendment (Australian Consumer Law) Act (No. 1) 2010 (Cth) was the first of two Acts to implement the new Australian Consumer Law. The Act was passed by the Commonwealth Parliament on 17 March 2010. On 24 June 2010, the Trade Practices Amendment (Australian Consumer Law) Bill (No.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have been subjected to a range of government policies and practices, since colonisation of Australia which began in the late 1700s. In 1997, the Human Rights and Equal Opportunities Commission (HREOC) had submitted the Report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families (the ‘Bringing them Home’, report) to the Australian Federal Government. The ‘Bringing them Home’ report made 54 recommendations about Australian policies and practices towards equal treatment of Australian Indigenous peoples. One such recommendation, (9b. ), requested “That all under-graduates and trainees in relevant professions receive, as part of their core curriculum,
The Uniform Commercial Code was first written in 1952. It is a (recommendation of laws that can be adopted by the various states uslegal.com). It was developed to create uniformity among the states for the purposes of conducting business across state lines. The UCC itself is not law but more of a template for states to follow when creating their own laws. It is (divided into nine articles and each one relates to different areas of commercial law including sales, leases, negotiable instruments, bank deposits, funds transfers, letters of credit, bulk transfers and bulk sales, warehouse receipts, bills of lading and other documents of title, investment securities, and secured transactions USLegal.com).
The motivation that provoked the British to settle in Australia was to expand their empire. Historian’s opinions on why New South Wales was colonised in 1788 has changed over time due to the evidence that has been found. Historians originally thought that Australia was colonized as a ’dumping’ ground for convicts and place for them to be transported to, although through further evidence and changing views with historians, it gives us the different perspective that Australia was colonised for the expansion of the British Empire. This essay will argue that Australia was colonised to expand the Empire of the British people. Botany Bay provided good resources for them to use such as Flax and Timber used for making cloths and building ships.
The Melbourne declaration is a policy document that develops by the states and territory education minister and the federal education ministers. The declarations are published in December 2008, follow by the 1989 Hobart Declaration and 1999 Adelaide declarations. The major change of the declaration is the demand of Australian education system including the server area that significantly need to improve and it also designed to support the 21-century learning (Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority, 2013). In the 21 century, to provide the young Australian people with the higher living style that has depended on to their education in the global economic innovation. Australian education ministers believe that education provides
Australia is a Democracy Never before have there been so many democracies in the world or so many competitive elections conducted at national, subnational and region levels. Democracy is now prescribed as inseparable from good governance and an antidote to corruption. The key aspects of what makes Australia a democracy being the electoral role, Australian Electoral Commission (AEC), referendumsm, the rule of law The separate colonies of Australia gained self-government during the nineteenth century and less than half a century later Australia became the first nation to vote itself into existence through popular referendum. How does Australia’s democracy in today’s modern age stack up on those early days of a fledgling democracy. The term democracy is a contested concept with many classifications.
Australia’s Government as a Constitutional Monarchy Australia has been a constitutional monarchy since January 1901. Australia’s first Monarch was Queen Victoria. The current Monarch is Queen Elizabeth ii. A Constitutional Monarchy is a form of government where a king or queen is head of state and the head of the Commonwealth of Australia is the queen. Even though Australia is an independent nation, it still shares a monarchy with the United Kingdom and other countries including Canada and New Zealand.
The Rights and Freedoms of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have changed and advanced in a variety of ways since 1945. All of these rights were created and evolved over nearly eighty years, up until this day. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are now happily considered to be a part of Australian population today, through years of oppression and discrimination. The Freedom Ride in February of 1965 was one of the first and main changes to the Aboriginal rights and freedoms. Thirty four students of mixed race from the University of Sydney formed a group called the Student Action For Aborigines and traveled to towns all across the state of New South Wales.
Australia has many and varied links to the world. These stem from the cultural ties the Australians have with other nations because of colonisation, followed by the political links Australia has gained because of the impact of settlement . The cultural ties Australians have with Great Britain biggest is definitely not the strongest in a united relationship but did leave quite an impact on those at the time. When the first English people settled into Australia it was in 1788, a time when they thought Australia was new and belonged to no one despite the first record that a human once lived on the land dating back 40,000 years ago. Terra Nullius was what James cook called it and it was an international law that finder’s keeper’s for a land that nobody owned,
In order to obtain permanent residency in Australia the candidate must first have been living in Australia for a sustained period of time after immigrating to Australia. Australian citizenship requirements: Applicants for Australian citizenship are required to be residing in the country as a permanent resident for a total of 3 out of 5 years before making the Australian citizenship application. Those applying for citizenship have been a Permanent Resident who came either on a Family-sponsored visa or Australia skilled independent visa. These are the most common type of Australia visas used in citizenship applications. Start Your Visa Assessment Here Security Due to security concerns subsequent to threat of terrorism from abroad, anew provision has been drawn which prohibits the approval of an Australian citizenship application if that person is identified as a risk to Australia 's security.
Six commissioners were appointed in Royal commission to look into case, investigate the private, public and non-government Institute’s activities involved with children. Based upon their investigations, Royal commission make recommendations on improving laws and policies. The Hon Justice Peter McClellan AM is the Chair of the Royal Commission and the other five Commissioners are Mr Bob Atkinson AO APM, Justice Jennifer Coate, Mr Robert Fitzgerald AM, Professor Helen Milroy and Mr Andrew Murray (Child abuse royal commission website). In 02 November 2015, NSW introduced some new legislative amendments which affect all the employers and organizations which provide child related services. The amendments are as following: Adoption Act 2000, Children and young persons (Care and Protection) Act 1998, Child Protection (working with children) Act 2012.
To efficiently exert cultural competence, they must be skillful in patience, listening and tolerance of silence, while also removing their own personal values, beliefs and biases from therapeutic relationships. 11) In the Australian context, what do you think psychology graduates should know in order to develop effective therapeutic relationships with Indigenous Australians? (approx 50 words) For psychology graduates and Indigenous Australians to form effective therapeutic relationships a respectful and trustful bond must be formed. This bond formation will require psychology graduates to have a respectable understanding of previous historical events. Including the colonization of land, the stolen generation and the taking of sacred sites, referred to in Dudgeon’s article “Australian Psychology and Indigenous People” (Dudgeon 2003, p.38-44) as the taking of ones historical and spiritual bonds.