According to Vygotsky, for the curriculum to be developmentally appropriate, the teacher must plan activities that encompass not only what children are capable of doing on their own but what they can learn with the help of others (Karpov & Haywood, 1998). Vygotsky’s theory does not mean that anything can be taught to any child. Only instruction and activities that fall within the zone promote development. For example, if a child cannot identify the sounds in a word even after many prompts, the child may not benefit immediately from instruction in this skill. Teachers can use information of both levels of Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development in organizing classroom activities such as first instruction can be planned to provide practice in
OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING The Social Learning Theory, also known as observational learning, involves how a learner changes behaviour and obtains knowledge as a result of watching others within their environment. Albert Bandura (1977) considered observational learning as the process that explains the nature of children learning behaviours by watching the behaviour of the people in their environment, and ultimately, imitating them. Observational learning will be applied to demonstrate how in the phonics activity, students act as observers, and the teacher as the model, where imitation of actions create a learning process resulting in the students being able to independently trace the ‘h’ letter shape, ultimately learning through observation.
They learn that off-topic conversations or “data dump” facts should stay in their head and even though their opinions are right, sometimes, they do not have to be stated aloud. All of these topics are interrelated and they are intended to promote social thinking to the participants. The authors also present the differences between social thinking and social skills. Social skill is when we are teaching the children with ASD or HFA behavioral technique such as eye contact during conversation. While, social thinking teaches the children to explore other’s objective/meaning through behaviors such
ALBERT BANDURA’S SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY INTRODUCTION Bandura’s social cognitive theory highlighted the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. Albert Bandura developed this theory which was influenced by social behavior theories. This is because he believed that learning theories in vogue at that time and resulted in incomplete explanations of the acquisition and performance of prosocial and deviant behavior (Schunk, 2000). According to Nevid (2009), social cognitive theory proposes that individuals do not simply respond to environmental influences, but rather they actively seek and interpret information.
The Socio-behaviorist theory (behaviorism) Socio-behaviorists often study how children 's experiences model their behaviors (Nolan & Raban, 2015). Behaviorism believes that what matters is not the development itself, but the external factors that shape children 's behaviors (Nolan & Raban, 2015). This theory demonstrates that teachers and mentors dominate and instruct child-related activities, and they decide what children should learn and how to learn (Nolan & Raban, 2015). Reinforcement, which is an essential factor that helps children to learn particular behaviors, generally refers to rewards and punishments (Nolan & Raban, 2015). Children are more likely to repeat actions that result in receiving praise; in contrast, they may ignore or abandon behaviors that make them get punishment.
Sociocultural theory focuses not only how adults and peers influence individual learning, but also, on how cultural beliefs and attitudes influences how instruction and learning take place. Vygotsky theory is children are born with basic biological constraints on their minds. Each culture provides what he referred to as ‘tools of intellectual adaptation.’ These tools allow students to use their basic mental abilities in a way that is adaptive to the culture in they which they live. For example, while one culture might emphasize memory strategies such as note-taking, other cultures might use tools like reminders or rote memorization.
Piaget believed that children dynamically create their own knowledge without depending on what they achieve from a teacher or parents (Kay C. Wood, 2001). The Moral philosopher, Kohlberg’s interest was on how the child develops a sense of right or wrong and justice. Kohlberg also believed that children undergo moral development stages during life which is similar to Piaget’s cognitive development stages. While observing children and adult, he realized a particular pattern in which people going through different stages without going back to any previous stage (Cory, 1996). In this review, the stages in each theory are explored and justified using varieties of authentic sources.
To begin with, the social learning theory by Albert Bandura (1977) states that humans learn behavior through observing the environment. Meaning that either on purpose or not, a model might be a teacher of behavior by being observed and imitated. But as already said, these models might have an involuntary effect – Bandura states that all what it is needed is for a human to become “student” is to have an interest in certain behavior, be able to reproduce it because if not, there is no motivation to either retain it or want to show off. Children are more likely to fall into imitation because they are learning, forming their intellect and personality and so they focus in their surroundings. The interest to replicate certain behavior can have several reasons but in general it is more likely that children will imitate the people who perceive similar to itself (i.e. same age or sex).
Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary and Thesaurus defines learning as knowledge or skill acquired by instruction or study (“Learning”). Thus, passing students who did not acquire skills or knowledge means that learning did not take place. Failing such students should teach them to make an effort to learn; it should educate them on what they were meant to learn through the means of repeating the course or by alerting them to make more effort in preparing their future assignments. John Dewey, the American Philosopher, believed that “education should mean the total development of the child” (“Education and personal growth” 1A). Therefore, we may deduce that teachers who fail to educate by simply passing students limit their development.
Throughout Lord of the Flies by William Golding and The Language of Baklava by Diana Abu Jaber, humans learn and develop cultural behavior from observing and being taught by those around them. Typically, young children form perceptions about what is correct cultural behavior from their elders, the eldest humans in their exposure. Cultural behavior transcends generations and forms moral accpetances among the people belonging to the society or family. Contrastingly, as it regards to the human feeling of being lost or isolation, people gain and experience different benefits from it. Being lost can be the best way to discover a truth that has been concealed in one’s confusion or rejection of the feeling.
Tehilla Silverberg Developmental Psychology Match 30, 2017 Project 1: Peppa Pig Peppa Pig is a television show catered to young children ages 2-7 years old that helps children with language, cognitive, and emotional development. Peppa Pig features a young pig as the main character of the series. In the show we follow Peppa Pig and her family and friends on different experiences they encounter in each episode. Each individual in Peppa’s life is a different animal with his or her last name matching the animal he or she is. For instance Peppa’s friend