These studies usually consist of three parts – a recording of public life in the spaces ,a quality evaluation of the public spaces and, based on these, recommendations for improvements – and they provide substantial knowledge for the city , how its being used and how it can be improved. Because Gehl Architects recognize that making recommendations alone is often not enough to convince decision makers, many of the studies also entail extensive educational and pedagogical demonstrations of the recommendations’ benefits. Major studies of this type have been conducted for the city centers of Copenhagen, Stockholm, Oslo, Riga, Perth, Adelaide, Melbourne and London. Life between buildings has become Jan Gehl’s major focus of study and work. By starting with public life and the areas in which it takes place, building design becomes a means to an end, rather than an end in itself.
Simmel begins “The metropolis and Mental Life” discussing an extremely critical element of his work that “the metropolis fosters a situation where one must buffer him or herself from a constantly changing environment”. This, I believe, is one of the main challenges of urban living and something which really separates both rural and urban
That was until I looked closely, and the department was “Endocringology, not “Endocringeology.” Whoops! That was sure embarrassing. I just wrote an entire essay on the science of the endocrine system and, well, cringe. Well, if it’s any consolation, Urban Dictionary recognizes the former, though the latter spelling looks more legitimate. Wait, did I just reveal that I referenced Urban Dictionary?
Choosing the variables to capture the magnitude of the urban sprawl is the main challenge for the evaluation of the consequences of urban sprawl. One of the most well-known measures for assessing the urban sprawl employs variants of population density or developed areas as a proxy. However, the use of this kind of variables has been criticized for two main reasons. First, as pointed out by Hortas-Rico and Solé-Ollé (2010), there is no agreement regarding the right variables to capture density (density of housing units, population or employment), the extent of the space over which density should be characterized (total or urbanized area), and the scale at which density should be measured (metropolitan or municipality). Secondly, the density does not describe the urban areas properly, although it indicates the presence of scale of certain urban services, it fails showing the distribution of the
(2002), Content Analysis. A Guidebook, London, Sage Publication. Kothari, C.R & Grauray, G (2014), Research Methodology; Methods and Techniques, NewDelhi, New Age International Publishers. Macau, R.B. (1986), Fundamental Statistics for behavioural sciences.
Thus, as far as primary rules are concerned, Hart argues that there is a need for certainty, so that these rules can be applied by general public without any official guidance. There are a number of defenders of rule of law who have emphasized the need for the same kind of safety. He also discusses clarity as to which norms are to be declared as law. Hart had earlier argued that rule of recognition serves a very important purpose in peoples’ understanding of which rules can be secretively enforced by the society. However, in the Postscipt of his book, the Concept of Law, he says that the need for certainty is not a requisite condition.
An inter-organizational refinement is required and the internal and external mutual control and transparency must reassemble the civil administrative structure of Tehran. The Tehran urban management should define the duties of its subsidiary institutes obviously and prevent corruption. It also should have independent financial character, strong institutional will and robust legal position. In this case, it would be possible to face frankly against contraventions and greed of private capitalists, banks or insurance companies. Thirdly, city authorities (as heroes of sustainability story of Tehran) should recognize determinant role of people in success or failure of any sustainability story.
CITC12 City Structures and City Choices: Course Reflection I took CITC12 as an elective for my Major in City Studies. As a student of City Studies and Public Policy with plans to be a city planner, I had a special interest in city governance and community development, a marriage between the two majors. I was excited at the prospect of continuing my education in public governance and social and community development. However, as soon as I opened that course syllabus my heart sank. A large component of my mark would be based on a group assignment and presentation.