Risks of Genetic Engineering Although the benefits of genetically modifying organisms may seem vast, it is important to consider the fact that this is a very new technique, and the risks involved are not fully understood. Since the reason behind genetic engineering is basically to improve the quality of human lives, it is important to discuss the potential adverse affects that genetic engineering may have on human beings. One risk associated with genetic engineering is that it is based on the idea that each trait of an organism is encoded in a single gene, and that the transfer of that specific gene will also cause the transfer of the favored property. However, genes cannot be regarded as separate entities. They are all related, and they are all influenced by many factors including the external environment.
It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved organisms. The purpose of genetic engineering is to eradicate the world of debilitating diseases. Although this is a noble goal, this branch of science also has many risks. Some people believe that we should care about genetic engineer because they believe genetically modified (GM) foods pose a serious health risk to society. However, the views concerning genet-ically modified food are mixed.
Well, according to Mayo Clinic’s page titled Alzheimer’s disease – symptoms and causes last updated December 30, 2017, genetic factors such as your family history, having Down syndrome, or even your gender can create a risk for Alzheimer’s disease. 1. Similar to other diseases like, say, cancer, having family members who have it can increase your chance of getting it, though specific genes have been difficult to truly pin. 2. For those with Down syndrome, a gene contained in the extra chromosome increase the risk.
Researchers have discovered that epigenetics plays a huge role in certain disease. The field is very new, still growing and little understood on why epigenetic marks spontaneously decide to turn off or on gene expression. Feinberg and Vogelstein first discovered that the unhealthy tumour cells of patients with cancer had less methylation than patients who had normal health cells. As mentioned methylation results in turning off of gene expression. In cancer cells there are promoter regions where free methylation occurs and genes that should not be turned off are turned on.
Introduction: Intussusception is a common gastrointestinal emergency in the pediatric population. This illness is a conversion in which a portion of the intestine telescopes into another adjacent distal segment of the intestine and causes bowel and ileocolic obstruction. Intussusception is considered a frequent cause of abdominal pain in pediatric patients. It is well described in infants, with an incidence of 0.1 to 0.4 % nonetheless it is less well-established in neonates.1, 2 In fewer than 10% of the patients, a surgical lead point can be determined as a plausible etiology. Cecal duplication as a lead-point of neonatal intussusception is extremely rare.
Human genetic makeup varies highly with each individual and hence the assimilation and absorption of food and medicine. Human Genome Sequencing deciphered the presence hotspots in human genome called as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a genetic variation between each individual/group of individuals which plays a vital role determining the individual's nutrient requirement, their vulnerability to diseases and responses to food and medicine. Nutrigenomics (diet to gene: influence of diet on gene) along with nutrigenetics (gene to diet: effect of genetic variation between individuals and varied responses to nutrient) applications changed the approach of 'food as medicine' into a more personalized one and has revolutionized the nutrition industry. Thus Nutrigenomics, which once was seen as a nutrient based solution for metabolically challenged population like phenylketoneurics and lactose intolerants - is perhaps the compelling tool for every individual of present and future generation to seek food specific to their genetic
It varies considerably (35–90%) possibly due to the use of different measurement instruments, research in heterogeneous populations, and measurement during different stages of illness (Lyne et al., 2012). Negative symptoms are highly prevalent amongst schizophrenia patients and therefore, may help predict poorer social outcomes, such as social stagnation (Dlabac-de Lange, Knegtering & Aleman,
The ‘Teen Body Struggle’ temporary exhibition at the Red Cross Museum explores the wide issues regarding teenage anorexia, eating disorders and perceptions of beauty. Within the exhibit anorexia is portrayed as a largely physical disorder, however the Oxford English Dictionary defines anorexia as ‘a condition marked by emaciation, etc., in which loss of appetite results from severe emotional disturbance’. This suggests that it is just as much a mental concern. The idea that deterioration in mental health is the cause of the physical symptoms is a popular one. It is the notion that reason and sense perception result in severe weight loss, that eventually cause side effects such as loss of hair, shut down of organs or delays in menstruation (factors known from the AOK of natural sciences).
Abstract Survival analysis is normally used to describe the analysis of data that depend on the time between constant starting point until the occurrence of specific event or endpoint. There are certain aspects of the survival analysis data, such as censoring and non-normality, which can generate great difficulty when trying to analyze data using traditional statistical models. In this paper, the Kaplan-Meier estimator is used to estimate the survival function. Also Log-Rank test is used to compare between groups using the stages of the illness as a comparing factors. Finally, Cox’s regression model is one of the most applied methods in medical research, is used to determine the factors that affect the survival time and assess the relative
However there is unimportant proof to propose that there are disservices and critical dangers of expending GM foods. Different testing has been led on a variety of substances and segments of GM crops to test for specific impacts, some of these being toxicity and allergenicity. There are clashing reports; some proposing GM foods are sheltered, others that say they are unsafe and a danger to human health. According to my point of view, we should support the production of genetically modified foods because many poor countries are facing food shortage problems. GM foods can play a positive role to overcome the food shortage problem at world level.
Annotated Bibliography Fornaro, M. (2009, May 18). Obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders: A comprehensive survey. This disorder is known to be the disabling anxiety condition and counts for more than half of serious anxiety cases. In this article the author speaks on the severity of Obsessive-compulsive disorder also known as OCD. She elaborates on the fact that there is no official clinical classification for the disorder, although the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition – text revision classify it as an anxiety disorder.
Eugenicists were focusing on undetected genes being spread across people. Preventive medicine was the topic of discussion; negative eugenics was emphasizing the question of who should be able to reproduce? Genetic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, mental conditions and others were coming into question. The relevance of genetic medicine is now apparent in today’s age as when we go to the doctor, the forms that we have to fill out entail family history. As discussed earlier, Garrod focused on the importance of family history when he tracked the baby’s family and today family history or genetic medicine has become an essential part in patient diagnosis.
Genetic engineering is unpredictable which could lead to negative affects in finding cures such as creating new and stronger diseases. Occupy Theory states, “Considering that genetic engineering employs viral vector that carries functional gene inside the human body; the consequences are still unknown. There are no clues as to where functional genes are being placed. They may even substitute the important genes, instead of mutated genes. Thus, this leads to another health condition or disease to human” (occupytheory.org).
The world thinks that prescribing medication for veterans is the secret cure to all of the PTSD issues, but this is one of the main causes of homelessness and unemployment amongst veterans. These are some of the diagnoses that along with the prescribed medication have these effects, Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder is diagnosed when the veteran complains of some sort of memory lost or concentration problem. The side effects brought on by Adderall are fast pounding or uneven heart beats, pain or burning when you urinate, talking more than usual, feelings of extreme happiness or sadness, numbness, tingling, or strange sensation under your skin, tremors, hallucinations, unusual behavior and motor tics or muscle twitches; penis erections that are painful or last 4hours or longer, high blood pressure, sever headaches, buzzing in your ears, anxiety, confusion, chest pain and seizure. This is just the effects of one of the drugs prescribed to our veterans, think about the other 400 hundred other drugs and their effects and compile them with this one. How can our service men and women who return home from combat survive and function in the world with these issues let
It is currently the 7th leading cause of death in the United States. The estimated cost of diabetes in 2007 in the U.S. was $17.4 billion. This includes the cost of policies such as Medicaid. Minority populations, such as Hispanic Americans, are at higher risk for developing Type 2 diabetes. Obesity is a major risk factor for this disease and with lifestyle changes it can be prevented, delayed, or reversed.