Ketamine should be used with caution because of potential interaction between levodopa and ketamine’s sympathomimetic activity. Butryophenones( eg:-droperidol) and phenothiazines , which block dopamine receptors and exacerbate PD should be avoided. Ondansettron appears safe in preventing and treatment of emesis in patients with PD and is also used in treatment of psychosis induced by long term levodopa therapy. Opioids are more succeptible to produce muscle rigidity in patients with PD. Meperidine should be avoided in a patient taking monoamine oxidase inhibitor becaouse of the potential to produce stupor, rigidity, agitation and hyperthermia.
Lorazepam can also be used as premedication for anxiolysis at a dose of 2 mg as bolus and its elimination half life is 13.8 hrs. Though Lorazepam onset of action is delayed, it produces a constant sedative effect on the CNS when bolus dose precedes a continuous infusion. This property of lorazepam made available in the critical care medicine.5 Aim To compare the safety and efficacy of Lorazepam over a well-established premedication, Alprazolam, in producing sedation and anxiolysis effects. Objectives 1. To determine and compare the sedative and anxiolytic effects of orally administered Alprazolam and Lorazepam in control and treatment group at time intervals of 30, 60 and 90 minutes.
These drugs include: Celexa, Zoloft, Prozac and Luvox. By researching these disorders I managed to grasp the pros and cons of them and see if they are worth it. Celexa, is considered to the most serotonin-selective of all the SSRIs used to treat depression (Koplewicz, 272). In addition, unlike other SSRIs stopping abruptly is less likely to cause significant side effects, however, in order for it to work properly it essential to be compliant and consistent with the medication (Koplewicz, 273). Furthermore, Zoloft’s side effects seem to be less significant, which is why it seems fewer patients seem to stop treatment with Zoloft and it is believed that patients can take a “drug holiday” to decrease the sexual side effects (Koplewicz, 271-272).
The next antibiotic was erythromycin which produced a zone of inhibition of zero and was therefore resistant. The last antibiotic that was chosen to be used in the experiment was ciprofloxacin. This antibiotic produced a zone of inhibition of 26mm and was therefore sensitive. After a little bit more research it was concluded that K. oxytoca produces B-lactamase, therefore making it resistant to penicillin and ampicillin (MicrobeWiki, 2015). Now that testing has been done the providers know what type of medication would be best to start with.
First, SUBOXONE is an prescription medicine, used as a treatment method for adults addicted to opioid drugs. Equally important, Suboxone is formulated as buprenorphine, which can be taken orally or sublingually in order to prevent pleasureable attempt of euphoria. By the same token, the medication SUBOXONE is an listed controlled substance containing buprenorphine, meant to target people abusing prescription medicines or street drugs. Another key point, Suboxone maintenance is an complete treatment program, which includes counseling and behavioral therapy. Third, Suboxone is used for short-term treatment, however, Methadone is used for long-term treatment.
A form of therapy called PUVA combines application of one of a class of drugs called psoralens, which penetrates the skin, with exposure to ultraviolet light type A (UVA). Antimetabolites have been used to treat severe psoriasis, helping to control the disorder by their antiproliferative action. Methotrexate is the most commonly used antimetabolite for this purpose. Acitretin or cyclosporin is sometimes used. In a phase II
Alzheimer’s disease is caused by the low levels of concentration of neurotransmitter acetylcholine which aids in neurotransmission as a chemical messenger due to the two hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease which are the accumulation of beta amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. There is yet for a cure to be found for Alzheimer’s disease however the use of the drug Rivastigmine has been verified to help relieve the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase so that the neurotransmitter acetylcholine is not
but it can be treated with drugs, called anticholinesterases, that inhibit an enzyme, acetylcholinesterase, that breaks down acetylcholine in the body leads to increase muscular strengthens inhibitors do not cure diseases only symptomatic relief. With optimal treatment, the prognosis is good in terms of daily functions, quality of life and survival in the majority of patients suffering from MG. Symptomatic treatment with acetylcholine esterase inhibition is usually combined with immunosuppression. Pyridostigmine bromide is still the most commonly used acetylcholinesterase inhibitor in the treatment of MG. Plasmapheresis, immunoadsorption and the intravenous administration of immunoglobulins, respectively, are used for crisis intervention. The current MG therapy were already introduced more than 40 years ago. These are still pyridostigmine, corticosteroids, azathioprine and thymectomy.
However, response to treatment is slow, with clinical improvement taking at least 24 weeks o Isotretinoin 0.05% is used in the treatment of melasma. Clinical studies conducted to evaluate its efficacy in the treatment of melasma demonstrated that isotretinoin was associated with reduction of pigmentation o Adapalene is naphthoic derivate a potent retinoid in the treatment of melasma. • Randomized double-blind study reported that azelaic acid was as effective as hydroquinone. However, combination of azelaic acid, with tretinoin or glycolic acid may be more effective in the treatment of melasma. This is may be due to combination therapy produces earlier and more pronounced skin lightening • Vitamin C inhibits melanin formation and inotophoresis is used to increase the penetration of vitamin C. In a comparative study , vitamin C inotophoresis showed increase in brightness of pigmentation • N-acetyl-4-S-cysteaminylphenol is a melanocytotoxic agent consisting of phenol, catechol, and sulphur.
The amount of dopamine released is equivalent to a stimulant drug injection such as amphetamine. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that releases the “feel good” hormone. According to Dr David Greenfield, PhD, founder of the Centre for Internet Technology Addiction and assistant clinical professor of psychiatry at the University of Connecticut School of Medicine, there’s an extra or excess amount of dopamine that remains in the brain, therefore, leading to a decrease in brain production of neurotransmitters (producing less neurotransmitters), which could lead to a diminished levels of dopamine. This could lead to sleep disturbance in the gamers amongst other conditions. (Source A and B) Studies have shown that playing video games helps enhance a person’s multi-tasking skills, visual perception, hand-eye coordination, as well as increasing the brain’s ability to process information.
The committee felt that quetiapine, although not having randomized controlled trial data to support its use, did have the data to support its safety, whereas all other atypical antipsychotics, excepting clozapine, did not. Aripiprazole is to be consider the third line agent, although data indicate that it is likely to worsen some patients. Cholinesterase inhibitors have also been used but not reported nearly as extensively as the AA. The data suggest mild benefit only, and the benefit may take weeks to develop. Rare case reports of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) as an effective treatment for psychosis have been published.
Biomedical therapies consist the use of medicine and other medical treatments such as electroconvulsive therapy to treat psychological disorders which we say in this weeks video. Antidepressants such as Paxil, Prozac and Zoloft, are some of the medications used in biomedical therapy. However, the most known out there being Prozac. Prozac has become the most effective antidepressant, as it has much milder side effects (Hockenbury and Hockenbury 2013). Secondly, antidepressants have become cost friendly, as Prozac is now available in genetic form.