The goal of the experiment is to synthesize a bromohexane compound from 1-hexene and HBr(aq) under reflux conditions and use the silver nitrate and sodium iodide tests to determine if the product is a primary or secondary hydrocarbon. The heterogeneous reaction mixture contains 1-hexene, 48% HBr(aq), and tetrabutylammonium bromide and was heated to under reflux conditions. Heating under reflux means that the reaction mixture is heated at its boiling point so that the reaction can proceed at a faster rate. The attached reflux condenser allows volatile substances to return to the reaction flask so that no material is lost. Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst.
The extraction efficiency was most successful with dichloroethane as diluents than any others. Stripping study was carried out with hydrochloric acid. The method was applied for the separation of Mo from minerals composed of different kinds of metals. In this experiment molybdenum was determined by drywashing it and was followed by spectrophotometrically analysis as a complex with Tiron at 390 nm. Turel and Patil (1996)  have established a rapid and selective method for the extraction of molybdenum with malachite green into nitrobenzene.
The percent yield was 22.33%. In most cases, that means that a lot of possible product was lost. However, in this case, that was not true. When Benzaldehyde reacted with the Wittig reagent, it produced two products: E-Stilbene and Z-Stilbene. The Z product was a liquid, while the E product was a solid.
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The objective of the experiment completed was to form the product 9,10-dihydroanthracene-9,10-α,β-succinic anhydride from anthracene and maleic anhydride. The reaction that took place is named a Diels-Alder reaction, defined as an addition reaction in which a diene unites with a double or triple bond of an unsaturated compound to form a 6-membered-ring. The following reactions below depict the ways in which dienes and dienophiles join to form products. Anthracene functioned as a diene and maleic anhydride functioned as the dienophile. Xylene was used as a solvent that provided a quicker way of reaction between the two starting materials.
In the synthesized Friedel-Craft acylation reaction mechanism, anisole (methoxybenzene) is the nucleophile. The double bond on the nucleophile attacks the electrophile acetyl. The acetyl compound is then bound to the anisole in the para position, which created the product p-methoxyacetophenone. Since anisole is an activator (electron donor), the acetyl could have bound in either the ortho or para position (or in the meta position, but it is not as likely). However, the reason that acetyl was not bound in the ortho position was because the para position demonstrated the least amount of steric hindrance.
They are then passed from molecule to molecule until they reach an electron acceptor at the reaction centre where NADPH and ATP are produced, they are consumed by a light-dependant process that uses CO2 to form carbohydrates. Phillipe Barbier, a french chemist in the nineteenth century, discovered a way to produce a small amount of dimethyl heptanol by reacting methyl iodide, magnesium and methyl heptanone together under anhydrous conditions. Following his discovery, his student, Victor Grignard found out that by performing a reaction in different steps will produce a higher yield. The Grignard Reagent which can be reacted with a range of carbonyl-containing compounds to form an alcohol can be produced by reacting alkyl halide and magnesium using dry ether as a
Polyester is synthetic fiber which mainly derive organic chemical compound from coal, air, water and petroleum and have the ester linkage. According to How (2015), the chemical reaction between an acid and alcohol formed polyester where a combination of two or more molecules form large molecule whose the structure repeats throughout its length. Researched by Smith (n.d) mentioned that production of polyester is by the chemical reaction of ethylene glycol with either terephthalic acid or its methyl ester in the presence of antimony catalyst to produce initially the monomer and low molecular mass oligomers. i. Starting from the acid: Direct esterification reaction.
The positive or partially positive atom is referred to as an electrophile. The whole molecule which the electrophile and the leaving group are part of is called the substrate. The most general form of the reaction is represented as the following: Nuc: + R-LG → R-Nuc + LG: The lone pair on the nucleophile would attack the (R-LG) substrate, forming a new bond with the (R) resulting in the (LG) leaving the substrate with a lone pair. The product formed after the nucleophilic attack is (R-Nuc). After the nucleophilic substitution, the nucleophile can be neutral or carry a negative charge while the substrate can be neutral or positively charged.
Confirmatory tests : confirm the presence of the cation/anion in a given compound. Qualitative tests The addition of hydrochloric acid to solutions containing carbonate or bicarbonate ions or to solid samples of carbonates and bicarbonates causes the rapid evolution (production) of carbon dioxide gas. The equations for the reaction of acid with these ions are: H + (aq) + HCO3 - (aq) → H2O(l) + CO2(g) 2H+ (aq) + CO3 -2 (aq) → H2O(l) + CO2(g) Solutions containing hydrogencarbonate ions react with hydrochloric acid, producing carbon dioxide gas. For example, NaHCO3 + HCl NaCl + H2O + CO2↑ Solutions containing carbonate ions also