What additional medications can improve outcomes in a patient like Bill who has stable angina?
Her concurrent health challenges were hypertension (HTN), high cholesterol, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Her concurrent health challenges could have impacted her admitting health challenge because the health challenges could have led to weakness which aiding in her falling while walking to the bathroom. HTN is a sustained elevation of blood pressure over more than one reading, with systolic being equal to or greater than 140 mm Hg, and diastolic being equal or greater than 90 mm Hg (Lewis, Dirksen, Heitkemper, Bucher, Camera, 2014). Although signs and symptoms of hypertension are not visible, elevated blood pressure is noticed and possible headaches in life threatening situations (Potter, Perry, Stockert, & Hall, 2014). My patient had presented with elevated blood pressure levels, but was controlled with drug therapy throughout the day. Hypertension puts patients at high risk for cardiovascular diseases. Although medications will lower blood pressure, they will not cure it. Lifestyle changes such as diets low in sodium combined with exercise will help cope with and treat the disease (Lewis et all.,
The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system are two divisions of the autonomic nervous system of the body. They are very closely related and coordinated with each other and regulate the unconscious functions of the body. The autonomic nervous system is responsible for our involuntary reactions and controls our heart beat, digestive processes, blood flow and hormone production. This means that we can’t consciously control whether our heart beats or not. The sympathetic nervous system prepares our body for the flight or fight response. If we are in an emergency situation, the sympathetic nervous system gets our body ready to either fight the enemy or run away from
Since a heart failure may cause the body to have more fluid than it should, diuretics may be used to reduce the fluid content in the
As respiratory therapist we will have the ability to deliver three types of bronchodilators depending on symptoms the patient is displaying or as a maintenance drug in diseases like COPD, emphysema and cystic fibrosis. It is vital that we know which medication works best in each circumstance.
Metoprolol tartrate is a beta-blocker that lowers blood pressure by inhibiting the hormone renin in the blood, thus lowering blood pressure. According to research treating hypertension in the African American race is difficult, therefore, a combination of medication is used. In the case of Mr. Larsen, he is treated with metoprolol, in addition with spironolactone, a diuretic commonly used with an antihypertensive to alter blood pressure. Alteration in blood pressure for a prolong time can decrease cardiac output causing damaged to the
Epidemiological studies have recognized a strong association between hypertension and CAD. (Rosendoroff 1373). .Beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and ace inhibitors are used in both diseases. Heart rate, preload, afterload, and contractility determines the demand for cardiac oxygen. (Burchum 581). Beta blockers reduce the demand for cardiac oxygen by causing a reduction in afterload, contractility and heart rate. They also increase oxygen supply and reduce angina pain. Beta blockers suppress reflex tachycardia and decrease renin release enabling the decrease of blood pressure. Common side effects for beta blockers are bradycardia, drowsiness, fatigue, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Calcium channel blockers method of action is to prevent calcium ions from entering cells in order to treat effects on the heart and blood vessels. (Burchum 485). The intended outcome is to relax the coronary artery spasm and increase cardiac oxygen supply resulting in the decrease in afterload and contractility. (Burchum 588). Calcium channel blockers may cause constipation, dizziness, facial flushing, headache and edema. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors prevent the formation of angiotensin II leading to the decrease in blood pressure. (Burchum 509). ACE inhibitors reduce blood volume and prevent changes in the heart and blood vessels.
Admit the patient using critical thinking skills to assess and prioritise nursing interventions related to Audrey’s.
Another long-term control medication is Leukotriene modifiers. These medications are taken by mouth. They block leukotrienes in the body. When leukotrienes release, they cause airway constriction, swelling and inflammation of the lungs, and increased mucus production. Common leukotriene modifiers include Singulair, Accolate, and Zyflo. The side effects of these medications include flu-like symptoms, feeling nervous or excitable, headache, and nasal congestion (National Institues of Health, 2014).
syndrome, Riley–Day syndrome, surgically induced sympathectomy, pheochromocytoma, multisystem atrophy, Bradbury–Eggleston syndrome, and the Shy–Drager syndrome (which is also known as idiopathic orthostatic hypotension). There is a variety of medications that can cause syncope by causing orthostatic hypotension and other mechanisms also leading to syncope. These are vasodilators (such as hydralazine, nitrates, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors), adrenergic blockers and adrenergic stimulants, diuretics, tricyclic antidepressants, phenothiazines, and others, can cause orthostatic
Perfusion is the process of a body delivering blood to a capillary bed in itsbiological tissue. The word is derived from the French verb "perfuser" meaning to "pour over or through".
Angiotensin I will activate Angiotensin II to cause vasoconstriction and to stimulate kidneys to release aldosterone. Aldosterone will retain sodium and water resulting in increased blood volume, which will elevate the blood pressure. At the same time, hypothalamus stimulates posterior pituitary gland also to release anti-diuretic hormone, which will also retain water resulting in increased blood volume and elevated blood pressure (Craft et al, 2013, p. 3191). However, Mr. Jensen takes anti-hypertension medicine i.e. Captopril (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme [ACE] inhibitor) which will inhibit the RAAS function leading to decreased blood volume and blood pressure. Moreover, due to open fracture on Mr. Jensen’s right leg, there is a possibility of significant blood loss, which can lead to hypovolaemia. Moreover, he is on aspirin (anticoagulant), which will contribute in increased blood loss. Hypovolaemia contributes to decrease in cardiac output, which results in decreased arterial and pulse pressure. Hence, the open fracture will cause hypotension to Mr. Jensen. (Sinert & Spektor,
Effects: Albuterol is used as a bronchodilator, which means it enlarges the patient’s respiratory passages to make breathing easier for a patient experiencing respiratory difficulty.
(Mancano & Gallagher, 2014) Notice that all these medications end with –lol, a way to know what class the medications fall into. Beta blocker medication differ in the receptors they block and there effects. Non-selective beta blockers (propranolol), block B1 and B2 receptors, therefore affect the heart, blood vessels, and air passages. Selective beta blockers (metoprolol), block B1 receptors and mostly affect the heart and has no effect on the air passages. Labetalol and Carvedilol block beta and alpha-1 receptors. By blocking alpha receptors, this adds to the blood vessel dilating effects. Some of the beta blockers have intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA), which means they mimic the effects of norepinephrine and epinephrine and cause an increase in blood pressure and heart rate. (Ogbru & Marks,
Beta Blockers are beta-adrenergic blocking agents. They are medications that reduce your blood pressure. Beta blockers work by blocking the effects of the hormone adrenaline and noradrenaline. When a person with hypertension takes a beta blocker, the heart beats more slowly and with less force, reducing the blood pressure. The heart contains beta 1 cells and the lungs contain beta 2 cells. Beta Blockers block all beta cells and need to be taken with cautious because they can block the lungs giving the patients a greater risk of bronchospasm. If those receptors are blocked, the patient can not broncho dilate as easily. Caffeine can affect those with asthma. Caffeine is a drug similar to theophylline. Theophylline is a bronchodilator drug that