Environmental Resistance To Antibiotics Essay

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The development of resistance to all kinds of antibiotics in the sensitive bacterial pathogens is a major challenge to infectious disease medicine. The astonishing effects of antibiotics and origin of the genes associated with resistance has been a long mystery. There is growing evidence that the genes that make up this environmental resistome have the potential to be transformed to pathogens and indeed there is some evidence that clinically relevant resistance genes have originated in environmental microbes. Understanding the extent of environmental resistome and its mobilization into pathogenic bacteria is essential for the management and discovery of antibiotics.

INTRODUCTION
Antibiotics are organic substances produced by microorganisms, capable of inhibiting the growth or destroying another microorganism at low concentrations [1]. The antibiotics field was initiated when Paul Ehrlich first coined the term ‘magic bullet’, or chemotherapy, to designate the use of antimicrobial compounds to treat microbial infections. In 1910, Ehrlich discovered the first antibiotic drug, Salvarsan, which was used to treat Syphilis. Later Alexander Fleming, discovered Penicillin in 1928. Then, in 1935, Gerhard Domagk discovered the sulfa drugs, that paving the way to the discovery of the anti-TB drug Isoniazid. Then, in 1939, René Dubos became the first scientist to discover an antibiotic after deliberately looking for it in soil
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Probably antibiotic-resistant bacteria bring out more sensation than its usage of the in animal husbandry and in cattle [5]. Microbial resistance to antibiotics is on the rise, in part because of inappropriate use of antibiotics in human medicine but also because of practice in the agricultural industry [6]. Antibiotic resistance operates through one of four general mechanisms

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