Antibiotic Resistance Research Paper

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Antibiotics are medicines that have been the front-runners in combatting bacterial diseases for more than 70 years and have contributed to an increase in life expectancy of world populations (CDC, 2012). Antibiotic resistance is the phenomenon caused by the misuse and overuse of antibiotics that leads to bacterial strains eventually becoming irresponsive as a result of modification of pre-existing genes of the persisting resistant bacteria. Infectious bacterial diseases caused by MDR (Multi-drug resistant) pathogens have severe implications for patients: prolonged hospitalization, increased cost and greater mortality rate (Dahiya, P.& Purkayastha, S.2012). WHO has even recognized antibiotic resistance as “one of the biggest threats to global…show more content…
The taste, smell antimicrobial properties of these substances are derived from compounds known as phytochemicals (secondary metabolites) present in the substance that inhibit growth of bacteria (Avato et al. 2002). The presence of a benzene functional group and sulfur may be an important component of the antimicrobial mechanism (Agabalogun, L et al). Presently, approximately 80% of the world population relies on botanical derived medicines as they are considered safe, free of side effects, effective against bacterial ailments and do not pose threat of bacterial resistance (Hora and Nair.1944).
In this experiment, the antimicrobial properties of the powdered forms of three widely used Indian spices: Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Indian Lilac/Neem (Azadirachta indica), Ginger (Zinhiber officinale), Asafetida (Gumm oleoresin) was further investigated. They were compared to the antibiotics Ampicillin and Erythromycin to test whether natural remedies can provide efficient counterparts to pharmaceutical drugs. Two bacterial strains- E. coli and Probiotics (mixture of “good” bacteria) were utilized to understand the effect of antibiotics and natural treatments on ‘bad’ and ‘good’
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The active ingredient in turmeric is curcumin (the yellow pigment) and its biological properties include antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and even anti-cancer (Curcumin.Pubchem.2017). Studies have also shown that curcumin and turmeric are tolerated well by the body without any significant harmful side effects (Chattopadhyay, al. 2004).

Neem is a tree that is native to South Asia, also known as ‘Nature’s Drugstore’ or ‘Panacea for All Diseases’ in India and has even been coined the ‘tree of the 21st century” by the UN (Banerjee, Pooja S,2012). Its leaves contain a mixture of azadirachtin, salannin, melantriol and nimbin which all have medicinal properties. Azadirachtin is the primary active ingredient with antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, antihelmintic and even anti-diabetic properties (Banerjee, Pooja S,2012)

Ginger is a flowering plant whose ginger root (rhizome) is widely used as a spice and natural medicine. It has antibacterial, anti-oxidant, antiviral properties and has been used to treat colds, migraines, hypertension etc ( ). The oleoresin from the roots contains “bioactive components” which provide these properties. (Bode AM, Dong
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