History Vocab Chapter 2 1. Mesopotamia- comes from two greek words meaning “the land between the two rivers”. These rivers were the Tigris and Euphrates. This is where modern day iraq is. It is important because the rivers provided the first cultivators with irrigation which led them to a food surplus.
1. Constantine was a former soldier that was given the title of Cesare of the West (in the Roman Tetrarchy created by Diocletian), and was assigned to the furthest reach of the empire which was the English city of York. 2. Constantine issues the Edict of Milan which declared official tolerance for Christianity. He also demanded the Christians to change their day of worship from the Hebrew Sabbath to the Roman day of the Sun.
The American Historian and Diplomat George Kennan once said that “The very concept of history implies the scholar and the reader. Without a generation of civilized people to study history, to preserve its records, to absorb its lessons and relate them to its own problems, history, too, would lose its meaning.” Humans must heavily analyze the past via themes when reviewing sources in order to understand the past through our ancestors eyes. This is why the themes of the 3Cs, Change, Comparison and Connection are fundamental. Connection must be considered due to the way countries can affect each other, such as the way the Industrial Revolution had a widespread impact across the world.
Shifting cultivation was a common way of agriculture. Settlers burned forests to grow plants and food in this area. They would move another area when soil didn't have nutrition. As a result of this, erosion caused everywhere and made empty fields. Also, wild animals lost their habitat because forests were disappearing and people created earthworks.
The geographical change in history began with the forest land. It was expanded and claimed as agricultural land for farming and grazing. Instead of attempting to plant crops in shaded, dry areas, man discovered that land accompanied by sun and rain was key to growing crops. The people were used to being nomads and taking their homes with them. Once they became educated farmers, they learned to settle.
To begin, typically between June and September, the river would flood its banks. Since there is little rainfall in Egypt, this yearly flood would allow moisture back into the soil, improving the conditions for farming. This area of land “along the banks of the Nile [is called] the Kemet, or Black Land.” It is noted that “the land along the banks of the Nile River were extremely fertile.” In addition, the Nile River acted as a natural highway, creating opportunities to trade goods by water.
For example, the Indus river. The Indus river affected early civilizations because it gave them food, water, and provided them with silt. The Indus river supplied the civilizations with food because they could catch the fish that swam in the river. In addition to food, all the water from the mountains got dumped into the river, so this gave them some fresh water to use for drinking, bathing, and watering their crops. Also after floods, the Indus river would leave behind a great deal of silt, which was great for their crops.
Throughout history, nomadic herders from the steppes of central Asia have interacted with societies around them and influenced much of Eurasia. Around the 14th century, these nomadic herders were able to use their military prowess to conquer and dominate settled societies to build a vast empire for themselves. Mongol conquest and rule of China and the Middle East both differed in terms of systems of bureaucratic administration and trade-based interaction, but As the Mongols conquered China and the Middle East, they adopted different systems of bureaucratic administration to govern the people living in their newly obtained territories. In China, Mongols viewed the Chinese as mere cultivators, so they brought foreign administrators into China who were in charge of Chinese affairs.
Known commonly as The Stone Age, Paleo comes from the Paleolithic period of history and the Paleo diet eating plan is often known as the "Hunter Gatherer Diet. " It takes its name from the fact that all the food contained in this diet were either able to be hunted or gathered. Meats and Seafood come under the hunted category meanwhile nuts, vegetables and fruits for example are categorized under gathered. Basically, this diet stems from the fact that early humans who had no access to or knowledge of animal husbandry and agriculture, had a diet that you either hunted or gathered for yourself.
At that time, survival revolved around hunting and foraging. However, the climate conditions began to change, and around 1000 years later, the Fertile Crescent was quickly not providing enough for the population at the time. In order to adapt, agriculture was developed. Instead of hunting and gathering, humans began to plant a variety of different crops. Eventually, wheat and barley became the crop of choice, especially in the towns of Jericho and Çatal Hüyük, the two most prominent Neolithic Settlements.
The Neolithic age was a period in the developments of human technology, starting in some parts of the Middle East around 10,000 BCE, and which later spread to other parts of the world. It is also considered as the last part of the Stone Age. The Neolithic Revolution, which is also called the Agricultural Revolution, is the transition of human cultures from the lifestyle of hunting and gathering, to agriculture and settlement, thus increasing the ability to sustain a larger population. Domestication of Plants Domestication is the process of adapting wild plants and animals for use by humans. These can be used to make different resources for human consumption and use, such as food, clothing, medicine, etc.
This was the beginning of our humanity. Thus began the Paleolithic Stone Age (Old Stone Age) that lasted from two millions years ago to 30,000 years before the present time. That is a long time span where our ancestors utilized the same kind of tools. But at about 30,000 years ago, their stone tool repertoire began to change, becoming smaller with finely carved stone microliths and thin bone needles for sewing hide for clothing.
There were many similarities and differences between the Paleolithic and Neolithic age. The Paleolithic age, also known as the stone age, is known to have the earliest humans, who were nomadic. They were hunters and gatherers who used basic tools and fire to survive. The Neolithic revolution started in the Middle East near areas with fertile soil in about 10,000 BCE. Most early civilizations were river based.
The Neolithic Revolution was a crucial starting point for civilizations mainly because it was the period in which agriculture was discovered, successfully practiced, and acknowledged by many other societies as it spread to other regions of the world from its starting point in the fertile Middle East. Although it is referred to as a “revolution,” the progression from mobile hunting and gathering groups to more complex, stationary farming societies took thousands of years before finally becoming an essential base for many large societies. Farming led to important means that might now serve as fundamentals, or at least elements, of our very definition of civilization today, such as the construction of houses. These advancements caused further