In vitro: Treatment of MM cells with SRT1720 inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in MM cells resistant to bortezomib therapy without significantly affecting the viability of normal cells. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that anti-MM activity of SRT1720 is associated with activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, poly(ADP) ribose
Everyone knows that death is inevitable, yet strangely, when the subject of death emerges, fear is evident in people’s faces and tone of voice. When deeply examining works of art, such as Gladiator, Myths to Live By, and world tragedies such as the horrific event that took place on September 11, 2001, the reality of death is a prime focus of human culture. Death is an event that everyone in the world will endure; however, human beings can’t live in fear with the thought of one day staring death in its face.
Cancer is found to be one of the most challenging and fastest growing disease in the world. By 2030 it is predicted that about 22 million cases will be diagnosed affecting about 1.7 million American’s every year. These cancer cells when viewed with naked eye resembled like a crab having a mass tissue in the center with legs reaching out. Initially it was determined as the fatal disease having no cure. 4000 years ago an Egyptian physician numbered all the diseases and the treatments which will be known to the ancient world but under the treatment section for cancer it just described “THERE IS NONE”. It was believed that balancing four different fluids such as melancholia, flagmet, coleric and sangvin would result better. In 1890, Dr. William Halsted, famous surgeon concentrated on patients with breast cancer, he found that
Henrietta Lacks was a black tobacco farmer from the south who, in 1950, at the age of 30, she was diagnosed with aggressive cervical cancer. Lacks went to John’s Hopkins medical center for treatment for her cancer. In April of 1951, she underwent surgery to remove the larger tumor on her cervix. Henrietta Lacks, died three days following the surgery. Even though Henrietta Lacks died, her cells from the tumor have lived on and have made a major impact on the biomedical community. The cells that came from Henrietta Lack’s tumor were extremely strange, normal cells go through something called apoptosis, programed cell death, the cells from Lack’s tumor did not go through this process and continued to divided continually. Doctors and lab pathologists
In vitro: Previous study found that the exposure of the tumor cell lines to 3-AP before or immediately after irradiation resulted in an increase in radiosensitivity. In contrast, 3-AP could enhance the radiosensitivity of the normal fibroblast cell line only when the exposure was before irradiation. There were no consistent differences between cell lines with respect to the expression of the RR subunits. Whereas
For many, death is not an easy topic. There are those who find the ambiguity of what occurs in the afterlife frightening and some others who fear that death will cut their lives short before they fulfill their destinies. In an almost subconscious fashion, mankind has leaned on medical technologies to help deal with the ambiguity of the afterlife. Biotechnology has emerged as the premiere form of medical technology that enables mankind to further try to resist mortality. With the development of biotechnology, people are able to fight illnesses and other harms which also help decrease their chances of dying. Those with illnesses that may have brought their lives to an end years ago can now receive treatment that will allow them to live longer. Leon Kass, author of Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity, devoted chapter 9 of his book to engaging the discussion of humanity’s pursuit of immortality through medical technologies. In this chapter, Kass challenges that this use of medical technology is not a good idea. Kass seems to believe that, mankind abuses biotechnology as it has now become a means to distance humanity from death. For Kass, the distancing of death is
Experiment 1C: To determine the impact of mono therapy (Melatonin) following TBI on apoptotic markers. Fluro Jade B and Nissl staining will be measured ex vivo in rats selected from Experiment 1A at each time point (0-3 hours, 2 and 7 days) to determine the effects of melatonin on apoptosis. Comparison will be made between saline and melatonin treated rats in terms of induction of apoptosis and morphological
Tumor is eventually the consequence of cells that wildly develop and don't die. Ordinary cells in the body take after an organized way of development, division, and passing. Customized cell demise is called apoptosis, and when this procedure breaks down, malignancy results. Pancreatic tumor cells don't encounter automatic demise, however rather keep on developing and isolate.
Post traumatic Stress disorder is a condition of persistent mental and emotional stress, It is a mental health condition that is caused by a terrifying event. Symptoms may include flashbacks, nightmares and severe anxiety, as well as uncontrollable thoughts about the event. In order to be diagnosed with PTSD, a person must have three different types of symptoms. Those symptoms are re-experiencing symptoms, avoidance and numbing symptoms, and arousal symptoms. An interesting symptoms is the Re-experiencing symptoms that involve reliving the traumatic event. In order to be properly diagnosed you have to visit a psychologist or doctor to correctly distinguish whether you have PTSD or not. It requires exposure to
Microtubules perform highly critical roles in the cell. If some perturbation happens, microtubules cannot function properly thus leads to diverse diseases in some tissue. In human body, the dysfunction of microtubules can cause many devastating diseases, for instance, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Parkinson Disease, and Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, or ALS, was discovered in 1869 by a French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot. Today this disease is commonly referred to as Lou Gehrig’s disease, after the famous baseball player who suffered through ALS. ALS is a progressive nervous system disease where the nerve cells break down impacting bodily functions. The disease affects the motor neurons that provide voluntary movements and muscle control. Those who are diagnosed with ALS will eventually lose their ability to eat, speak, move and breathe. The cause of ALS is unknown. As of today, there is no cure for this disease however with medication and therapeutic treatments the progression of it can be slowed down. The treatments will also help reduce the discomfort of having the disease (The ALS Association, www.alsa.org).
Alzheimer’s disease, the most common type of dementia, results in damage to the brain. Alzheimer’s disease affects over five million people and is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. A brain of a person with Alzheimer’s disease will have fewer neural cells and connections between those cells than a person without Alzheimer’s will, resulting in decreased memory and a decline in cognitive abilities. This type of damage can be better understood and possibly prevented through the implementation of the appropriate drugs by examining the roles of differing types of chemical bonds in Alzheimer’s disease.
Cancer is the disease caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in a part of the body. Cancer has affected 13.7 million people since 2012. It affects people and animals in different ways. This disease makes people ill and can even cause death. Even though the cells are in everyone’s bodies you may never become sick with this disease.
Sirtuins (Sir2 proteins) are proteins that exhibit mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase, deacetylase, deacetylase, desuccinylase, demalonylase, demyristoylase, or depalmitoylase activity. They are involved in a broad range of cellular processes which include DNA repair, gene silencing, tumor suppression, life span regulation, apoptosis, inflammation, and stress resistance (low energy/calorie situations). (Michan, 2007) Mammals possess seven cellular regulatory sirtuins (SIRT1-7). SIRT1 partakes in metabolism inflammation in the nucleus and cytoplasm. SIRT2 partakes in cell cycle and tumorigenesis in the cytoplasm. SIRT3 partakes in metabolism in the nucleus and mitochondria. SIRT4 partakes in insulin secretion in the mitochondria. SIRT5 partakes in
Riss, T., Moravec, R., Niles, A., Duellman, S., Benink, H., Worzella, T., Minor, L. 2013. [Internet]. Cell Viability Assays. Bethesda (MD): Eli Lilly & Company and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences. [cited 2017 Feb 4]. Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK144065/