They exert a wide range of functions in neuronal/glial proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, as well as in maintaining the membrane permeability to ions and in the stabilization of synaptic transporters and receptors, the latest processes relevant to the generation and propagation of the nervous impulse and synaptic transmission.20,39,40 Moreover, cell and animal models underscore the key function of sphingolipids in the neurite growth and myelination of the cerebellum and forebrain, among other brain regions.41,42 Deficiency of ceramide synthase-2 that generates sphingolipids with C22-C24 fatty acyl chains results in 50% loss of compacted myelin and 80% loss of CNS myelin basic protein.42 Similarly, a 60% reduction of myelin-associated glycoprotein in the cerebellum and forebrain characterizes mice deficient in ceramide synthase-1, the enzyme that generates C18:0 sphingolipids.41 Interestingly, mice deficient of ceramide synthase -6, which generates C16:0 sphingolipids, as well as mice deficient of GM3 synthase that is responsible for one of the first steps in the production of gangliosides, both present hyperactive behavior and have been postulated as suitable animal models for
Many concerns have centered in on the possible links between repeated concussions and chronic traumatic encephalopathy or CPE. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a serious, degenerative brain disease that affects a person’s ability to think. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy involves the progressive brain damage, particularly in the frontal region of the brain, which controls many functions including people’s judgement, emotion, impulsive control, social behavior and their memory. A signature feature of the disease is abnormal deposits of a protein called tau that accumulates around small blood vessels in brain crevices. Researchers believe that multiple blows to the head may dislodge the tau protein from the cell structure and cause it to form in clumps inside nerve cells.
Cerebral edema is a life threatening homeostatic imbalance that may be caused by many things and can be treated if the diagnosis, recognition and management is timely. (ScienceDirect: Cerebral Edema) There are three categories of cerebral edema: vasogenic, cytotoxic and interstitial. Vasogenic edema happens when there is increased permeability of the blood brain barrier. Some of the most common vasogenic causes of edema include: brain tumors/abscesses, lead toxicity, stroke, diabetic ketoacidosis and hypercapnia.
Another way to overcome this obstacle is by using CRISPR on gametes. These will pass on the corrected DNA on to every cell in the organism that is formed upon fertilization. However, its use on embryos generates huge controversy because it could go wrong, killing the embryo or having permanent harmful effects on the life of the organism that develops. Moreover, it is considered by many dangerous or unethical to
The major functions of mitosis are to repair and replace cells, and to maintain growth and development. Mitosis is frequently known for cell division and reproduction, while cancer is known to be a process of uncontrollable cell division. During mitosis, before progression through the next stage of the cell cycle, cells need to safely pass checkpoints to ensure that the DNA is ready for replication. If the DNA is damaged, apoptosis will occur and the cells will kill themselves off. Unfortunately for cancer these cells do not die off, and they bypass all of the checkpoints.
INTRODUCTION: Arginase is an enzyme- enzymes are biological catalyst which drives a reaction at the speed of life. Arginase is a hydrolase, hydrolases catalyze hydrolysis reactions, this is determined via the E.C number (Nelson and Cox 2008). Arginase has the EC number is 220.127.116.11 (Schomburg 2015). The enzyme ‘commission number’ is the arithmetical classification that is used for enzymes which indicates the chemical reaction they catalyze.
This can occur through vesicles that are formed by throttling the plasma membrane and then penetrating into the cell (endocytosis), or they merge with it to free their contents (exocytosis) outside. There are three types of endocytosis known: • phagocytosis - very common among unicellular protists, who use it to feed themselves; in the human body, some types of white blood cells incorporate cells and foreign substances into phagocytosis. • pinocytosis - a constant activity of pinocytosis is carried out by the endothelium, the tissue that covers the blood capillaries and which allows the cells of the surrounding tissues to withdraw fluids from the blood. • Receptor-mediated endocytosis - a quick and efficient method for withdrawing substances that can be found in the environment even at low concentrations.
Another mechanism of action is the altering of expression and phosphorylation of member of the bcl-2 family of proteins, docetaxel associate with the phosphorylation and inactivation of bcl-2 protein, members of the bcl-2 family are highly conserved proteins which regulate apoptosis. Docetaxel can display a wide spectrum of anti-cancer activity in preclinical trials. The clinical trial has shown that docetaxel is effective against hormone refractory prostate
To this school of thought, this macrophage-initiated cascade is not influenced by the quantity of viruses in the brain. This second hypothesis is informed by the fact that activated macrophages can produce neurotoxins that trigger the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxygen free radicals. As highlighted by McGuire (2003), various in-vitro studies have indicated that these factors can kill human brain cells. In line with this discourse, Pulliam, Gascon, Stubblebine, McGuire, and McGrath (1997) reported significantly higher amounts of a specific subtype of macrophages among patients with ADC as compared to their
These proteins are known as ‘Id proteins’ which are highly abundant in the cells of many different types of cancer, including brain, breast cancer and paediatric tumours, and they are known to promote tumour growth and assist in the spread of cancer. While searching for ways to kill the Id cells, they discovered the surprising neuron-healing properties of Id proteins. Their initial findings, published in the Nature paper, found that an enzyme inside normal cells called APC is what usually degrades Id proteins soon after they're produced by normal cells, but cancerous cells show a very high level of Id proteins. They also examined the Id protein potential for promoting growth, so they are attempting to use the power of Id proteins to stimulate growth of axons, which are the structures on neurons responsible for transmitting electrical signals between the brain and spinal cord. But to do this they needed to overcome the APC enzymes, which degrade the protein in normal cells.
SRT1720 Description: EC50: 0.16 μM SRT1720 is a selective activator of SIRT1. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies using various cancer cell models show the role of SIRT1 either as an oncogene or a tumour suppressor gene. The oncogenic potential of SIRT1 is exemplified by studies indicating that blockade of SIRT1, like other HDACs, triggers growth arrest and apoptosis in breast, colon and lung cancers.