Because basic skills are taught this makes routine easier for the ones involved. In addition, after a substantial period on ABA therapy the person is able to recognize letters and begin to write and communicate with others. This is major success for the families to be able to understand the needs of each other. On the other hand, those opposed to the ABA therapy state that the therapists who practice it push the person to stop some autistic actions such as clapping and screaming, with the use of violence. “The therapists following Lovaas’ program slapped, shouted at or even gave an electrical shock to a child to dissuade one of these behaviors.” Others argue that ABA therapy does not respect the person’s uniqueness and the individual needs that one might have, and treats him/her as a “robot” that has to accomplish certain tasks in order to be “normal”.
Spina bifida in Latin is translated as ‘split spine’. This disorder develops during the first trimester and is tested for during prenatal care, during the second trimester. There is no definite cause for the disorder, but experts say genetics and environment play a vital role. It is believed that taking folic acid, in the beginning months of the pregnancy, reduces the chance of development this disorder. Anyone is capable of having a child with spina bifida and most people who have this disorder have no family history of it.
Many different species of animal are used for animal testing some common ones include mice, fish, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and hamsters. One of the reasons why some people believe that animal testing is beneficial is because it uses animals that are a close match to humans, this however is not true. Animal cell structures and human cell structures are not alike, and therefore animals make poor test subjects. The majority of animal tests do not contribute to safer makeup products. Animal testing does not have a value in reassuring the safety of makeup products and it has been proven that computers and new modern technology can be more
Why do they do this? In a desperate attempt to find out the toxicity levels of chemicals that are used in makeup, cosmetics, cleaning products, drugs and even different food. These animals are exposed to chemicals that may cause painful eye and skin irritation, creating abnormalities, cancer and death. Animal testing for cosmetics has been banned throughout 28 countries, however cosmetic animal testing still remains legal in most countries. Many countries are not specifically required to do such animal testing, but as it is not prohibited yet, it still continues to take place at the discretion of cosmetic companies.
Out of 93 side effects only 19% of them could be predicted from the testing of animals (“Cruelty”). This fact shows how animals and humans are extremely different. Since animals have all of the same organs as humans do, they could be susceptible to some of the same illnesses as we can get. Mice and rats testing drugs in humans are accurate 43%, that’s less than half of the time (“Cruelty”). Paul Furlong Professor of Clinical Neuroimaging at Aston University says "it's very hard to create an animal model that even equates closely to what we're trying to achieve in the human."
If this money and time were put towards more human-based research, the results would be more useful towards finding cures. Human-based testing is the greatest solution to this issue of testing on animals. There are many methods of this form of testing too. The tests could occur using human tissue, cells, cadavers, and patient simulators. These alternative forms to animal testing are available, but they aren’t required for use by law so they often aren’t implemented (“Animal Rights is a Bad Science” 1).
Introduction Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is a form of therapy that seeks to improve particular behaviors such as communication, social skills, and adaptive learning skills such as domestic capabilities and fine motor dexterity. ABA is effective in adults and children because it improves skills and behaviors. It follows a research approach to the treatment that is centered on the proven models and theories of behavior and learning. Therapists using this approach comprehend how human behaviors are adopted and changed over time (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007). The case study provided details an account of a 14-year-old girl, Sara with severe developmental days exhibiting self-injuries behavior working with a behavior analyst, Martin.
The vaccine doesn 't cause any severe side effects. But some do experience fever or minor soreness and redness where they received the shot. MMR has also been linked to causing autism. There has been no convincing evidence that an MMR vaccine leads to autism but parents have noticed symptoms of autism after a few months of their children receiving the vaccine. But like mentioned before the CDC hasn 't approved and evidence of both being linked to one another.
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is defined as, "the process of systematically applying interventions based upon the principles of learning theory to improve socially significant behaviors to a meaningful degree, and to demonstrate that the interventions employed are responsible for the improvement in behavior“ (Baer, Wolf, & Risley, 1968; Sulzer-Azaroff & Mayer, 1991). It employs the principles of Operant conditioning, using both positive and negative reinforcement to increase wanted behaviors, as well as positive and negative punishment to decrease unwanted behaviors. Its effectiveness in bringing about worthwhile changes to the behaviors of people with Autism and Developmental Disabilities has been studied extensively, with promising results.
Research shows that children who receive early intervention services are more likely to have improved long-term outcomes. These services address communication, play, problem behaviors and skill development. When children are young, their brain plasticity is high, which is the optimal time for development and learning of skills should occur. The older the child, the more difficult it is to grow these skills.