Applying John Stuart Mill's Utilitarianism Theory

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The idea behind Kantian Ethics is that doing the right thing is not about the consequences of our actions but rather the principle motivating the action. Actions must be performed out of duty, that is, it is done solely because we have an obligation to perform such action out of respect for the moral law. As explained by Immanuel Kant, “the moral worth of an action done out of duty has its moral worth” (105). Kant argues that to act morally, then, is to “act only on the maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law” (108). Utilitarianism, developed by John Stuart Mill, is one of the most commonly used approaches in making moral decisions. Utilitarianism is a theory based on the principle that "actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness; wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness” (118). Mill describes happiness as pleasure and the absence of pain. Mill claims the best action is the one that maximizes utility. Which he defines "utility or the greatest happiness principle” (118) as both the basis of everything that people desire and as the foundation of morality. Aristotle’s moral approach focuses on the development of a person’s character and distinguishes between intellectual virtues, which we learn through instruction, and moral virtues,…show more content…
The ethics of care focuses on personal relationships and the virtues of compassion, love, sympathy, and the like. Held claims, it is “concerned especially with fostering connectedness among people” (148). The central focus of the ethics of care is attending to and meeting the needs of the particular others for whom we take responsibility. Held views care as both a value and a practice. As a practice, she explains, “it shows us how to respond to needs and why we should” (152). She believes “caring persons and caring attitudes should be valued”
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