Impact of salinity intrusion on livelihood of coastal people Whatever happens due to salinity, it subsequently affects various other sectors. All these are important because these affect the lives and livelihoods of the coastal people. Therefore, this section explores how salinity impacts on coastal people livelihood in through drinking water, soils, agriculture, fisheries, ecosystems, and ultimately livelihoods of communities and households. Agriculture Agriculture is the main source of livelihood in the coastal region. Salinity intrusion due to sea level rise decrease agricultural production by unavailability of fresh water and soil degradation which in turn reduces rice production.
The sustainability and development of shrimp aquaculture are at stake as significant ecological and pathological problems are increasing in vast majority of the shrimp producing countries. The production is regularly and seriously affected by problems linked to environmental degradation and to infectious and non-infectious diseases (Bachere, 2000). Of the infectious diseases, bacterial and viral infections, either as single or multiple pathogen conditions caused most of the production losses. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) first appeared as an epidemic in penaeid shrimp farms in 1993 in China and then quickly spread in Asian countries and subsequently to all over the world (Chou et al., 1995). WSSV has been reported to cause severe mortalities of cultured penaeid shrimp in several parts of Asia including India (Inouye et al., 1996).
Removing this mere source of subsistence that covers nearly, for example, a fisherman’s entire life is socially unethical. In fact, rich aquaculturists in rich or poor nations mainly focus on fishing as a form of entertainment, which is not pressing as ensuring food security (FAO, 2010). The aforementioned materialized in central Mexico, where the government introduced carp into lakes in 1978 in an effort to provide protein and nutrition to poorer populations (Tapia et. al 2003). Tapia was the President for Strategic Planning and Regional Development in Mexico at the time, demonstrating her connection to the plan of implementation.
Their livelihood activities might be diversified due to several reasons: It could be uncertainty of income generating from fishing or other fish productions, fluctuation in the amount of caught fish at sea which may in turn create a negative chain reaction on others’ income (dependents on fishing activities) (Allison and Ellis, 2001). On the other hand, fisher folks - boats owners/captains and crew members may leave their family for a protracted period of time and sail to other regions in search for more fish (Satia, 2004). Therefore, in a fishery-based community, livelihood strategies are diverse. Fisher folks and other stakeholders combine a variety of livelihood activities and choices to meet their various needs (Scoones, 1998). iii.
Recently the worst cases recorded in Ecuador, Indonesia, and the Philippines compared to the other several countries (Bandaranayake, 1999). Naito & Traesupap, (2006) identified that for the destruction of mangrove forest in Thailand shrimp farming is the main causes. And also they identify the development of extensive and semi-intensive shrimp farming techniques quickens mangrove deforestation than the intensive shrimp farming. Harkes et al (2015), indicated that losses of mangrove forests are increasing the coastal vulnerability to climate
This is often overlooked. Nevertheless, poor management of aquaculture development and casual practices can impact negatively on the environment and also the sector’s reputation. Potential impacts have been broadly studied in the literature and include: a. discharge of different effluents (e.g. waste feed, faeces, pesticides and medications) (Primavera, 2006); b. effects on biodiversity (Beveridge, Ross and Kelly, 1994); c. negative interactions with wild fish populations (Diamant et al., 2000; Heggberget et al., 1993); d. use of fishery resources as feed inputs (Naylor et al., 2009); and e. animal welfare issues (Ashley, 2007). The type and scale of such environmental effects from aquaculture production depend greatly on the farming method, level
Because there is a common idea that especially shrimp farm is harmful to the mangroves. From then on, the forests have begun regenerating, and the coastal ocean has revived of the fishery. Villages who are successfully managing CMFs have been dedicating to advise other villages who want to revitalize their
By the year 1988 farmed shrimps were the 2nd largest export product of Panama. By 2000, the management of aquaculture increased with the strong support from farmers and collective support from the government as well as academics. It’s been growing ever
constraints facing small-scale fisheries in the study area; and 4. level of involvement and roles of gender in fish production. 1.5 Expected Outcomes/Justification of the Study and the Linkages to the METASIP Objectives Poverty brings about a multitude of complications. Extreme hunger, malnutrition and starvation are a consequence of abject poverty which makes people especially children without access to health services and medications, vulnerable to escapable diseases such as dysentery, malaria, tuberculosis and cholera. As a result, death rates increase. Many people sometimes engage in acts that can expose them to deadly diseases such as HIV Aids.
It is the world’s fastest growing segments of agriculture system in past decades, with an overall growth rate of 11% a year since 1984. The farming of fish which is the most common form of aquaculture, involves raising fish commercially in ponds, tanks, river enclosures usually for food. In Nigeria, fish culture is carried out on small to large commercial scale. Present annual aquaculture production is about 50-60,000 tonnes contributing only 5% of total domestic production while capture fisheries account for over 855 of national production. The demand for fish in Nigeria has increased from 1-2million metric tonnes in 1989 to about 2.5million metric tonnes, while the present production is only 20% of the estimated yearly potential.