Aquaculture System

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6.1 Carbon sources and aquaculture systems: Direct energy consumption in intensively managed aquatic farming systems, especially for shrimp and salmon, has been assessed. However, the majority of global aquaculture production is of freshwater finfish from semi-intensively managed ponds in Asia, but audits of the associated direct and indirect energy use are not routine (Stuart and Jules, 2007). Indirect or embodied energy consumption is associated with site development and construction; production, acquisition and supply of inputs; waste handling and disposal; product processing, marketing and distribution.
6.2 Soil, water and waste management: Sediment management in pond-based aquaculture systems can have a significant effect on the accumulation
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In India (West Bengal) the practice is known as Komor or Huri, in Bangladesh it is called Katha, in West Africa Acadja and in Cambodia Samarahand. In West Bengal the practice is essentially fixing vertically unused bamboo sticks and tree branches to act as substrates for colonization by the plankton, microbes, invertebrates and other organisms that make up periphyton, in the various household tanks commonly found in the rural areas. The farmers in this part of India and Bangladesh traditionally believe that shaola (periphyton) growing on the substrate form food for the fish and serve as protection against poaching of fish. Indian major carps are grown in these ponds for fish culture to sustain the rural population. In Bangladesh the best result has been achieved if the surface area of the substrate is equal to approximately 50-100% of the pond’s surface area. The technology seems to hold promise for the farming of any herbivorous fish which is capable of harvesting periphyton from substrates.
b) Organic matter conservation: Integration of aquaculture within farming landscapes can present further opportunities to enhance carbon sequestration. Using sludge produced during the treatment of aquaculture wastewater to fertilise agricultural crops has been widely advocated and tested to a limited extent (Bergheim et al., 1998; Chen, 1998). Sludge and wastewater
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As with terrestrial farming, there may be opportunities for aquaculture operators to restore wetland areas and make a commitment not to convert existing wetlands for further aquaculture development. It is no coincidence that poverty and food insecurity are highest where water productivity is lowest. Getting more value from water through higher yields, crop diversifications, and integrating livestock fisheries, is an effective way of improving rural income, alleviating poverty and reducing risk by diversifying income sources. Thereby improving community resilience and reducing environmental degradation that exacerbates climate change. At global scale, improved productivity helps reduce green house gas (GHG) emissions by curbing the need to convert

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